Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC) of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV) designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current). To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV). The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.
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