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Article

Flexibility Management with Virtual Batteries of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Real-Time Control System and Potential in Spain

1
Centro Tecnológico CARTIF, Parque Tecnológico de Boecillo 305, 47151 Boecillo, Spain
2
Instituto de las Tecnologías Avanzadas de la Producción, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce 59, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Katsaprakakis
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061711
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
Load flexibility management is a promising approach to face the problem of balancing generation and demand in electrical grids. This problem is becoming increasingly difficult due to the variability of renewable energies. Thermostatically-controlled loads can be aggregated and managed by a virtual battery, and they provide a cost-effective and efficient alternative to physical storage systems to mitigate the inherent variability of renewable energy sources. However virtual batteries require that an accurate control system is capable of tracking frequency regulation signals with minimal error. A real-time control system allowing virtual batteries to accurately track frequency or power signals is developed. The performance of this controller is validated for a virtual battery composed of 1000 thermostatically-controlled loads. Using virtual batteries equipped with the developed controller, a study focused on residential thermostatically-controlled loads in Spain is performed. The results of the study quantify the potential of this technology in a country with different climate areas and provides insight about the feasibility of virtual batteries as enablers of electrical systems with high levels of penetration of renewable energy sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual battery; thermostatically-controlled loads; demand side management; frequency regulation; spain virtual battery; thermostatically-controlled loads; demand side management; frequency regulation; spain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martín-Crespo, A.; Saludes-Rodil, S.; Baeyens, E. Flexibility Management with Virtual Batteries of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Real-Time Control System and Potential in Spain. Energies 2021, 14, 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061711

AMA Style

Martín-Crespo A, Saludes-Rodil S, Baeyens E. Flexibility Management with Virtual Batteries of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Real-Time Control System and Potential in Spain. Energies. 2021; 14(6):1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martín-Crespo, Alejandro, Sergio Saludes-Rodil, and Enrique Baeyens. 2021. "Flexibility Management with Virtual Batteries of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Real-Time Control System and Potential in Spain" Energies 14, no. 6: 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061711

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