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The Effect of Ammonia Toxicity on Methane Production of a Full-Scale Biogas Plant—An Estimation Method

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Laboratory of Agricultural Structures & Equipment, Department of Hydraulics, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Research, Analytical & Quality Control Laboratory, QLAB Private Company, GR-57008 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Biogas Lagada S.A. Biogas Plant, Organic Waste Treatment & Electricity Generation, Plot 677 Kolchikou, GR-57200 Kolchiko Lagada, Greece
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Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Geotechnical Sciences, International Hellenic University, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Attilio Converti
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5031; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165031
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Anaerobic Digestion Processes)
Ammonia accumulation in biogas plants reactors is becoming more frequently encountered, resulting in reduced methane (CH4) production. Ammonia toxicity occurs when N-rich substrates represent a significant part of the biogas plant’s feedstock. The aim of this study was to develop an estimation method for the effect of ammonia toxicity on the CH4 production of biogas plants. Two periods where a biogas plant operated at 3200 mg·L−1 (1st period) and 4400 mg·L−1 (2nd period) of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+–N) were examined. Biomethane potentials (BMPs) of the individual substrates collected during these periods and of the mixture of substrates with the weight ratio used by the biogas plant under different ammonia levels (2000–5200 mg·L−1 NH4+–N) were determined. CH4 production calculated from the substrates’ BMPs and the quantities used of each substrate by the biogas plant was compared with actual CH4 production on-site. Biogas plant’s CH4 production was 9.9% lower in the 1st and 20.3% in the 2nd period in comparison with the BMP calculated CH4 production, of which 3% and 14% was due to ammonia toxicity, respectively. BMPs of the mixtures showed that the actual CH4 reduction rate of the biogas plant could be approximately estimated by the ammonia concentrations levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMP test; methane production; ammonia toxicity BMP test; methane production; ammonia toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalamaras, S.D.; Vitoulis, G.; Christou, M.L.; Sfetsas, T.; Tziakas, S.; Fragos, V.; Samaras, P.; Kotsopoulos, T.A. The Effect of Ammonia Toxicity on Methane Production of a Full-Scale Biogas Plant—An Estimation Method. Energies 2021, 14, 5031. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165031

AMA Style

Kalamaras SD, Vitoulis G, Christou ML, Sfetsas T, Tziakas S, Fragos V, Samaras P, Kotsopoulos TA. The Effect of Ammonia Toxicity on Methane Production of a Full-Scale Biogas Plant—An Estimation Method. Energies. 2021; 14(16):5031. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165031

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalamaras, Sotirios D., Georgios Vitoulis, Maria L. Christou, Themistoklis Sfetsas, Spiridon Tziakas, Vassilios Fragos, Petros Samaras, and Thomas A. Kotsopoulos. 2021. "The Effect of Ammonia Toxicity on Methane Production of a Full-Scale Biogas Plant—An Estimation Method" Energies 14, no. 16: 5031. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165031

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