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Article

Analysis of Very Fast Transients Using Black Box Macromodels in ATP-EMTP

1
Advanced High Voltage Engineering and Research Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
2
National Grid, National Grid House, Warwick Technology Park, Gallows Hill, Warwick CV34 6DA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030698
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overvoltage Protection of Electrical Networks)
Modelling for very fast transients (VFTs) requires good knowledge of the behaviour of gas insulated substation (GIS) components when subjected to high frequencies. Modelling usually takes the form of circuit-based insulation coordination type studies, in an effort to determine the maximum overvoltages and waveshapes present around the system. At very high frequencies, standard transmission line modelling assumptions may not be valid. Therefore, the approach to modelling of these transients must be re-evaluated. In this work, the high frequency finite element analysis (FEA) was used to enhance circuit-based models, allowing direct computation of parameters from geometric and material characteristics. Equivalent models that replicate a finite element model’s frequency response for bus-spacer and 90° elbow components were incorporated in alternative transients program-electromagnetic transients program (ATP-EMTP) using a pole-residue equivalent circuit derived following rational fitting using the well-established and robust method of vector fitting (VF). A large model order is often required to represent this frequency dependent behaviour through admittance matrices, leading to increased computational burden. Moreover, while highly accurate models can be derived, the data extracted from finite element solutions can be non-passive, leading to instability when included in time domain simulations. A simple method of improved stability for FEA derived responses along with a method for identification of a minimum required model order for stability of transient simulations is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas insulated substations (GIS); very fast transients (VFT); finite element analysis (FEA), finite element method (FEM); electromagnetic transients program (EMTP); vector fitting (VF); macromodelling gas insulated substations (GIS); very fast transients (VFT); finite element analysis (FEA), finite element method (FEM); electromagnetic transients program (EMTP); vector fitting (VF); macromodelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

James, J.; Albano, M.; Clark, D.; Guo, D.; Haddad, A. Analysis of Very Fast Transients Using Black Box Macromodels in ATP-EMTP. Energies 2020, 13, 698. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030698

AMA Style

James J, Albano M, Clark D, Guo D, Haddad A. Analysis of Very Fast Transients Using Black Box Macromodels in ATP-EMTP. Energies. 2020; 13(3):698. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030698

Chicago/Turabian Style

James, Jonathan, Maurizio Albano, David Clark, Dongsheng Guo, and Abderrahmane Haddad 2020. "Analysis of Very Fast Transients Using Black Box Macromodels in ATP-EMTP" Energies 13, no. 3: 698. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030698

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