Drivers for and Barriers to the Take up of Floating Offshore Wind Technology: A Comparison of Scotland and South Africa
- Political: This area is concerned with how various government policies and regulations combine to facilitate the generation of energy through different renewable sources.
- Economic: Addresses how the interactions within the energy network (i.e., supply chain) influence the levelised cost of electricity.
- Technical: This area involves geographical attributes—such as mean wind speeds—which determine the generation capacity, infrastructural capacity, and technological potential of the case studies.
- Social: This deals with the general public’s interaction with renewable energy development, and ranges from supplier engagement, due to revenue reasons, to consumer acceptance and issues such as environmental degradation and local community consultation.
3.1. Scotland: Drivers for and Barriers to the Take up of FOWT
3.1.1. Technical Factors
3.1.2. Political Factors
3.1.3. Economic Factors
3.1.4. Social Factors
3.2. Energy Situation in South Africa
3.3. South Africa: Drivers and Barriers of FOWT
3.3.1. Technical Factors
3.3.2. Economic Factors
3.3.3. Political Factors
3.3.4. Social Factors
4.2. South Africa
6. Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
|Introduction||This project involves the construction of a 50 MW rated floating offshore wind farm, with a site located 15 km south-east of Aberdeen, off the east coast of Scotland. Having commissioned the first phase of the project in 2018, a 2 MW V80 Vestas turbine mounted on a semi-submersible Windfloat foundation from Principle Power, the second phase, including 5 additional 9.5 MW Windfloats, is said to be under construction and poised to be the world’s largest floating wind farm upon its completion in 2020. This project is jointly owned by Pilot Offshore Renewables Limited (UK) (49% stake) and the Cobra Group (Spain), who own 51% of the project.|
|Costs||The entire project was valued at around 305 million USD and successfully secured the 3.5 Renewable Obligation Certificates from the Scottish Government for a 20-year period before its deadline in October 2018.|
|Surveys||Geographical surveys were carried out by Fugro GeoConsulting Limited and Atkins (UK), who carried out the geotechnical and EIA surveys, respectively.|
|CAPEX Supply Chain||As with Hywind, components of the Kincardine Offshore Wind Farm projects were mostly supplied by other European Countries. MHI Vestas (Germany) supplied the first 2 MW turbine and are to supply the remaining five 9.5 MW turbines. The floating foundation was designed by Principle Power (USA) and fabricated by Navantia (Spain) and Windar (Spain), while the moorings and anchors were supplied by Vryhof (Netherlands).|
In the installation and commissioning stage, Prysmian Group (Italy) provided the subsea array and export cables, which were installed by Correll Services (UK) and Global Offshore (UK) (4COffshore, 2020). Bourbon Offshore (France) and Kinetic Renewable Services (UK) were responsible for heavy load logistics, while Vryhof (Netherlands) partly handled the moorings and anchor installation.
|OPEX Supply Chain||O&M services in this wind farm were subcontracted to kinetic Renewable Services (UK), while the metocean monitoring and weather forecast is being overseen by Partrac (UK).|
|Introduction||Hywind Scotland is a 30 MW fully commissioned floating offshore wind farm, located 25 km off Peterhead in Buchan deep, north-east of Scotland. This project is majorly owned by a Norwegian company, Equinor, who are responsible for 75% of its development, and Masdar, a UAE company, who own 25%.|
|Costs||The project costs were estimated at 192 million USD, and to help cover the capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) the project secured a subsidy through the Scottish Government’s Renewable Obligation (RO) scheme for a 20-year period. This scheme offered 3.5 Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) for every Megawatt-hours (MWh) of generated electricity to floating wind generators.|
|Wind Farm Components||This wind farm is made up of five 6 MW turbines, mounted on Hywind spar foundations, and covering an area of around 4 km2 in water depths between 95 m to 129 m. The wind farm experiences an average wind speed of 10 m/s and an average wave height of 1.8 m and utilises an export cable of 30 km length, which helps transmit power to the shore.|
|Surveys||Geographical surveys of this wind farm area were carried out by Metocean Services International (South Africa/Australia), Fugro Geoconsulting Limited (UK), and Xodus Group (UK), who carried out the metoocean, geotechnical, and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) surveys, respectively.|
|CAPEX Supply Chain||Components of this floating offshore wind farm were mostly supplied by other European countries. Siemens (Germany) supplied the five 6 MW turbines, with the floating foundation designed by Equinor (Norway) and fabricated by Navantia (Spain) and Windar (Spain) at the Stordbase Port facility (Norway). Furthermore, the anchors were designed and fabricated by Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Norway) and Global Energy Group (UK) respectively, while the moorings and subsea cables (array and export cables) were provided by MacGregor Cargotec (Finland) and Nexans Norway AS.|
Installation and commissioning were majorly carried out by UK companies. Granada Material Handling Ltd. (UK) provided installation cranes, while Subsea 7 (UK) and Balfour Beatty (UK) oversaw the installation of the subsea cables and the substation/onshore cabling, respectively. However, floating foundations were installed by a Norwegian company, OHT Management AS.
|OPEX Supply Chain||Operation and maintenance (O&M) services were subcontracted to Green Marine (UK) and Reach Subsea (Norway), while equipment monitoring is being overseen by Wood Group (UK), Strainstall/James Fisher and Sons (UK), and Kongsberg Renewables Technology (UK). Additionally, Partrac (UK) are responsible for metocean monitoring and weather forecasting services.|
|Introduction||Dounreay Tri is a 10 MW floating wind farm project by Hexicon AB, which includes two 5 MW turbines, both hosted on one semi-submersible platform, fixed to the seabed with one mooring line and anchor and designed to utilise one subsea export cable in transmitting power to the onshore grid.|
|Costs||The project was valued at 60 million USD, however with uncertainties around the project’s ability to meet the Scottish Government’s October 2018 3.5 ROC deadline, the project was put on hold due to the withdrawal of funding support from the Dounreay Tri shareholders.|
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Umoh, K.; Lemon, M. Drivers for and Barriers to the Take up of Floating Offshore Wind Technology: A Comparison of Scotland and South Africa. Energies 2020, 13, 5618. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215618
Umoh K, Lemon M. Drivers for and Barriers to the Take up of Floating Offshore Wind Technology: A Comparison of Scotland and South Africa. Energies. 2020; 13(21):5618. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215618Chicago/Turabian Style
Umoh, Kubiat, and Mark Lemon. 2020. "Drivers for and Barriers to the Take up of Floating Offshore Wind Technology: A Comparison of Scotland and South Africa" Energies 13, no. 21: 5618. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215618