Investigation of Elastomer Seal Energization: Implications for Conventional and Expandable Hanger Assembly
2. Literature Review
3. Objectives and Scope
4. Finite Element Models
5. Analytical Validation
6. Simulation Results
6.1. Effect of Energization Method
6.2. Effect of Material Behavior
6.3. Effect of Friction
7. Practical Implications
- In conventional seal assembly, contact stress value decreases along the seal length from the compression side towards the support side. In case of frictionless assumption, contact stress remains constant along the seal length.
- In expandable seal assembly, irrespective of friction coefficient, contact stress peaks at the center of the seal length and declines towards either sides of the axial ends. The profile becomes progressively flatter with increase in elastomer seal containment and becomes similar to conventional seal assembly at 100% containment.
- Contact pressure values increases with increase in amount of compression, i.e., %volumetric compression. The increment is practically linear, irrespective of energization method and material behavior.
- Selection of material model in modelling did not impact the shape of contact pressure profile in either of the seal assemblies. However, hyper-elastic FKM yielded higher contact pressure values than the linear elastic FKM. Therefore, it is important to measure the elastomer material behavior over the range of operating strains and use appropriate model in predictions.
- In frictionless condition, conventional type energization will almost always provide higher peak contact pressure values and should be preferred to the expandable type energization mechanism.
- In case of frictional contacts, expandable type energization is likely to be more reliable than the conventional energization because the former yields higher contact pressure than the frictionless case while also maintaining the symmetry of the contact pressure profile.
- Expandable energization is more robust to failure in supporting components than the conventional assembly. Even if both elastomer containment spikes completely fail, the expandable seal assembly would still maintain contact pressure.
- In expandable energization, it is possible to install multiple seal elements along the length of pipe and achieve same contact pressure in all elements. In conventional assembly with multiple alternating seals and compression plates, peak contact pressure would subsequently decrease from the top seal element to the bottom seal element.
Conflicts of Interest
|BSEE||Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement|
|EPDM||Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer|
|FEA||Finite Element Analysis|
|HPHT||High Pressure High Temperature|
|LOWC||Loss of Well Control|
|αi||Ogden 3rd order material constant|
|deltaR||Percentage change in inner radius of seal|
|deltaV||Change in seal volume due to energization|
|deltaZ||Percentage change in axial seal height|
|Di||Ogden 3rd order material constant|
|E||Elastic modulus / Young’s modulus|
|μi||Ogden 3rd order material constant|
|V||Initial seal volume|
|ΔV||Change in seal volume due to energization|
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|Linear elastic FKM at 73°F ||Young’s modulus = 310.5 psi|
|Poisson’s ratio = 0.49|
|Hyper-elastic FKM at 73°F ||Ogden 3rd Order|
|μ1 = 278 psi, μ1 = 32.31 psi, μ1 = 0.198 psi|
|α1 = 2.661, α1 = -2.661, α1 = 10.79|
|D1 = 1.4 × 10−5 psi−1, D2 = 2.7 × 10−6 psi−1, D1 = 0|
|Liner and casing||Young’s modulus = 29 × 106 psi|
|Poisson’s ratio = 0.3|
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Patel, H.; Salehi, S. Investigation of Elastomer Seal Energization: Implications for Conventional and Expandable Hanger Assembly. Energies 2019, 12, 763. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040763
Patel H, Salehi S. Investigation of Elastomer Seal Energization: Implications for Conventional and Expandable Hanger Assembly. Energies. 2019; 12(4):763. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040763Chicago/Turabian Style
Patel, Harshkumar, and Saeed Salehi. 2019. "Investigation of Elastomer Seal Energization: Implications for Conventional and Expandable Hanger Assembly" Energies 12, no. 4: 763. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040763