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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments

1
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 412 58 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Division of Building Physics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
3
Division of Building Services, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234454
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
Apartments built in Sweden during the record years 1961–1975 with the aim to remedy the housing shortage and abolish poor standards, were designed for a normal-sized family of 2–4 persons. The mechanical ventilation system, if existing, was primarily designed to ensure an air exchange in the apartment according to Swedish building regulations. During the last few years, the number of overcrowded apartments has increased due to housing shortage in general but also due to migration. Another aspect is that the ventilation in many apartments built during the record years is already insufficient at normal occupant load. The question is how doubling or tripling the number of occupants and thus, the moisture load will affect the risk of bad air quality and moisture damage. To find out, simulations were made to estimate whether it is possible to obtain sufficient air quality and low risk of moisture damage by only increasing the ventilation rates in existing systems or introducing new ventilation systems with and without heat recovery and what the consequence would be in terms of the additional energy demand. Measurements from earlier studies of CO2 and moisture supply in Swedish apartment buildings were used as input data. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupancy density; moisture conditions; energy use; indoor air quality; ventilation rate occupancy density; moisture conditions; energy use; indoor air quality; ventilation rate
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Mjörnell, K.; Johansson, D.; Bagge, H. The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments. Energies 2019, 12, 4454.

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