We examine spillovers among the North American, European, and Asia–Pacific natural gas markets based on daily data. We use daily natural gas price indexes from 2 February 2009 to 28 February 2019 for the Henry Hub, National Balancing Point, Title Transfer Facility, and Japan Korea Marker. The results of spillover analyses indicate the total connectedness of the return and volatility series to be 22.9% and 32.8%, respectively. In other words, volatility is more highly integrated than returns. The results of the spectral analyses indicate the spillover effect of the return series can largely be explained by short-term factors, while that of the volatility series can be largely explained by long-term factors. The results of the dynamic analyses with moving window samples do not indicate that global gas market liquidity increases with the increasing spillover index. However, the results identify the spillover effect fluctuation caused by demand and supply.
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