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Energies 2018, 11(9), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092305

Constructing Accurate Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models of Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lead–Acid Battery Cells for Solar Home System Applications

1
Department of Electrical Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology, 2600 AA Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, 2600 AA Delft, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Storage Technology for a Sustainable Future)
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Abstract

The past few years have seen strong growth of solar-based off-grid energy solutions such as Solar Home Systems (SHS) as a means to ameliorate the grave problem of energy poverty. Battery storage is an essential component of SHS. An accurate battery model can play a vital role in SHS design. Knowing the dynamic behaviour of the battery is important for the battery sizing and estimating the battery behaviour for the chosen application at the system design stage. In this paper, an accurate cell level dynamic battery model based on the electrical equivalent circuit is constructed for two battery technologies: the valve regulated lead–acid (VRLA) battery and the LiFePO 4 (LFP) battery. Series of experiments were performed to obtain the relevant model parameters. This model is built for low C-rate applications (lower than 0.5 C-rate) as expected in SHS. The model considers the non-linear relation between the state of charge ( S O C ) and open circuit voltage ( V OC ) for both technologies. Additionally, the equivalent electrical circuit model for the VRLA battery was improved by including a 2nd order RC pair. The simulated model differs from the experimentally obtained result by less than 2%. This cell level battery model can be potentially scaled to battery pack level with flexible capacity, making the dynamic battery model a useful tool in SHS design. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic battery model; electric equivalent circuit battery model; battery testing; solar home systems; VRLA; LiFePO4 dynamic battery model; electric equivalent circuit battery model; battery testing; solar home systems; VRLA; LiFePO4
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yu, Y.; Narayan, N.; Vega-Garita, V.; Popovic-Gerber, J.; Qin, Z.; Wagemaker, M.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M. Constructing Accurate Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models of Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lead–Acid Battery Cells for Solar Home System Applications. Energies 2018, 11, 2305.

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