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Energies 2018, 11(6), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061454

Convex Programming and Bootstrap Sensitivity for Optimized Electricity Bill in Healthcare Buildings under a Time-Of-Use Pricing Scheme

1
WICOM Energy Research Group, Departamento de Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí 171-5-231B, Ecuador
2
Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Spain
3
Center for Computational Simulation, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Boadilla, 28223 Madrid, Spain
4
Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, 28492 Fuenlabrada, Spain
5
Wisenet Signal Processing & Wireless Networks Laboratory, University of Agder, 4876 Grimstad, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy Use: Modeling and Analysis)
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Abstract

Efficient energy management is strongly dependent on determining the adequate power contracts among the ones offered by different electricity suppliers. This topic takes special relevance in healthcare buildings, where noticeable amounts of energy are required to generate an adequate health environment for patients and staff. In this paper, a convex optimization method is scrutinized to give a straightforward analysis of the optimal power levels to be contracted while minimizing the electricity bill cost in a time-of-use pricing scheme. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the constraints in the optimization problems, which are analyzed in terms of both their empirical distribution and their bootstrap-estimated statistical distributions to create a simple-to-use tool for this purpose, the so-called mosaic-distribution. The evaluation of the proposed method was carried out with five-year consumption data on two different kinds of healthcare buildings, a large one given by Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, and a primary care center, Centro de Especialidades el Arroyo, both located at Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain). The analysis of the resulting optimization shows that the annual savings achieved vary moderately, ranging from −0.22 % to +27.39%, depending on the analyzed year profile and the healthcare building type. The analysis introducing mosaic-distribution to represent the sensitivity score also provides operative information to evaluate the convenience of implementing energy saving measures. All this information is useful for managers to determine the appropriate power levels for next year contract renewal and to consider whether to implement demand response mechanisms in healthcare buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand side management; demand response; optimization; time-of-use; healthcare building; convex programming; sensitivity analysis; bootstrap resampling demand side management; demand response; optimization; time-of-use; healthcare building; convex programming; sensitivity analysis; bootstrap resampling
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Gordillo-Orquera, R.; Muñoz-Romero, S.; Arcos-Aviles, D.; Chillón, R.; Lopez-Ramos, L.M.; Marques, A.G.; Rojo-Álvarez, J.L. Convex Programming and Bootstrap Sensitivity for Optimized Electricity Bill in Healthcare Buildings under a Time-Of-Use Pricing Scheme. Energies 2018, 11, 1454.

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