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Energies 2018, 11(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030541

Mechanical Frequency Response Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries to Disclose Operational Parameters

1
Center for Low-Emission Transport, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Institute of Electronic Sensor Systems, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
3
Center for Mobility Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Abstract

During the charge and discharge process, lithium-ion batteries change their mechanical properties due to internal structural changes caused by intercalation and de-intercalation of the ions in the anode and cathode. Furthermore, the behavior changes over the lifetime of the battery due to several degradation mechanisms. The mechanical properties of the cell hold valuable information for monitoring these changes and additionally provide data for mechanical construction and further optimization of battery systems. Hence, in this manuscript, the mechanical frequency response function is investigated as a non-destructive method to determine parameters such as stiffness and damping of pouch cells and their correlation with the state of charge (SOC), the state of health (SOH), and the temperature of the cell. Using a mechanical shaker and an impedance head, it is shown that low amplitude forces of only a few Newton and a low frequency region of several hundred Hertz already suffice to show differences in the state of charge and state of health as well as in mechanical properties and the dependencies on temperature. Also the limitations of the method are shown, as the frequency response is not distinct for each parameter and thus, at the moment, does not allow absolute determination of a single value without prior system knowledge. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery; modal analysis; mechanical excitation; state of charge; state of health; temperature lithium-ion battery; modal analysis; mechanical excitation; state of charge; state of health; temperature
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Popp, H.; Glanz, G.; Alten, K.; Gocheva, I.; Berghold, W.; Bergmann, A. Mechanical Frequency Response Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries to Disclose Operational Parameters. Energies 2018, 11, 541.

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