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Energies 2018, 11(10), 2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102748

Energy Management in Buildings with Intermittent and Limited Renewable Resources

1
Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa (IPL), Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), Electrical, Energy and Automation Department (ADEEEA), Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa (IPL), Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), Mechanical Engineering Department (ADEM), Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores-Investigação e Desenvolvimento (INESC-ID), Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract

This work reports a contribution, in a model predictive control multi-agent systems context, introducing a novel integrative methodology to manage energy networks from the demand-side point of view, in the strong presence of intermittent energy sources, including energy storage in households or car batteries. In particular, the article presents a control-based solution for indoor comfort, which, in addition, optimizes the usage of a limited shared energy resource. The control management is applied, in a distributed way, to a set of so-called thermal control areas (TCAs) and demand units, with the objective of minimizing the cost of energy while maintaining the indoor temperature within the comfort zone bounds, and simultaneously not exceeding a limited amount of shared renewable energy. The thermal control areas are, in general, thermodynamically connected, and are also coupled by energy interrelation constraints established in the particular optimization solution. Energy management is performed with a fixed sequential order established from a previously carried out auction, wherein the bids are made by each unit’s demands, acting as demand-side management agents, based on the daily energy price. The developed solution is explained by a basic algorithm that has been applied to different scenarios, and the results have been compared so as to illustrate the benefits and flexibility of the proposed approach, showing less energy consumption and a 37% cost saving. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy usage; distributed model predictive control; limited and intermittent energy resource; DSM; thermal comfort energy usage; distributed model predictive control; limited and intermittent energy resource; DSM; thermal comfort
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Barata, F.; Igreja, J. Energy Management in Buildings with Intermittent and Limited Renewable Resources. Energies 2018, 11, 2748.

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