# Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Thermoelectric Generators

_{match}is the matched load voltage, ΔT

_{sp}is the temperature difference of the measurement stated in the TEG datasheet; N

_{TEG-s}is the number of TEG modules, R

_{int}is the TEG internal resistance, m is the TEG internal resistance vs. TEG temperature (R

_{int}vs. T) curve slope and n is the R

_{int}vs. T curve intercept.

## 3. The dc-dc Converters and MPPT

#### 3.1. Extremum Seeking Control MPPT Technique

_{1}and k

_{2}represent the frequencies of the low and high pass filters of the estimator, respectively. G

_{1}is a proportional gain of the controller which is used to adjust the value from the integrator. The dithering sinusoidal signal is also passed through a gain G

_{2}. The integrator 1/s is applied to the output of the low pass filter to eliminate the steady state offset of the controller. The gains G

_{1}and G

_{2}are tuned until a suitable output power is achieved from the converter.

#### 3.2. Perturb & Observe MPPT Technique

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Results of ESC MPPT Method

#### 4.2. Results of P&O MPPT Method

#### 4.3. Comparison of Both MPPT Techniques

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 6.**Flow chart of the conventional Perturb and Observe (P&O) method [37].

Converter Component | Symbol | Value |
---|---|---|

Inductor | L1 | 30 µH |

Diode Forward voltage On resistance | D1 | 0.38 V 0.2 Ω |

Input capacitor | Cin | 800 µF |

Series resistance | ESR | 0.05 Ω |

Output capacitor | Cout | 800 µF |

SwitchClosed resistance | R_closed | 0.0026 Ω |

Open conductance | G_open | 0.1n siemens |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Twaha, S.; Zhu, J.; Maraaba, L.; Huang, K.; Li, B.; Yan, Y.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method. *Energies* **2017**, *10*, 2016.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122016

**AMA Style**

Twaha S, Zhu J, Maraaba L, Huang K, Li B, Yan Y.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method. *Energies*. 2017; 10(12):2016.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122016

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Twaha, Ssennoga, Jie Zhu, Luqman Maraaba, Kuo Huang, Bo Li, and Yuying Yan.
2017. "Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method" *Energies* 10, no. 12: 2016.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122016