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Nutraceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 5 articles

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Review
Food Antioxidants and Aging: Theory, Current Evidence and Perspectives
Nutraceuticals 2022, 2(3), 181-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals2030014 - 03 Aug 2022
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Abstract
The concept of food and aging is of great concern to humans. So far, more than 300 theories of aging have been suggested, and approaches based on these principles have been investigated. It has been reported that antioxidants in foods might play a [...] Read more.
The concept of food and aging is of great concern to humans. So far, more than 300 theories of aging have been suggested, and approaches based on these principles have been investigated. It has been reported that antioxidants in foods might play a role in human aging. To clarify the current recognition and positioning of the relationship between these food antioxidants and aging, this review is presented in the following order: (1) aging theories, (2) food and aging, and (3) individual food antioxidants and aging. Clarifying the significance of food antioxidants in the field of aging will lead to the development of strategies to achieve healthy human aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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Article
Anti-Allergic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Leaf in RBL-2H3 Cells and Cedar Pollinosis Model Mice
Nutraceuticals 2022, 2(3), 170-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals2030013 - 26 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is classified in the Apiaceae family and used as an herb. Coriander leaf has been reported to possess various health functions. Here, we report the anti-allergic effect of aqueous coriander leaf extract (ACLE). ACLE with 1.0 mg/mL or [...] Read more.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is classified in the Apiaceae family and used as an herb. Coriander leaf has been reported to possess various health functions. Here, we report the anti-allergic effect of aqueous coriander leaf extract (ACLE). ACLE with 1.0 mg/mL or higher concentration significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with no cytotoxicity. ACLE suppressed the increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to antigen-specific stimulation. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that ACLE significantly downregulates phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and tends to downregulate phosphorylation of Syk kinase in the signaling pathways activated by antigen-mediated stimulation. Oral administration of ACLE did not alter the sneezing frequency of pollinosis model mice stimulated with cedar pollen, but significantly reduced the serum IgE level. Our data show anti-allergic effects of coriander leaf in both cultured cells and pollinosis mice. These results suggest that coriander leaf has the potential to be a functional foodstuff with anti-allergy effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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Brief Report
Effects of Acute Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Ingestion on Aerobic Exercise Performance
Nutraceuticals 2022, 2(3), 162-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals2030012 - 19 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.; VA) has been traditionally used in folk medicine to combat fatigue and stress. Evidence has shown that chronic consumption of VA results in an enhancement of oxidative metabolism and exercise performance. However, no studies have investigated how acute [...] Read more.
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.; VA) has been traditionally used in folk medicine to combat fatigue and stress. Evidence has shown that chronic consumption of VA results in an enhancement of oxidative metabolism and exercise performance. However, no studies have investigated how acute VA consumption influences performance. The purpose of this brief report was to investigate the effects of acute VA ingestion on rowing exercise performance. Physically active females were recruited for this study. In a crossover, counterbalanced design, participants completed two trials each with a different treatment: (1) VA (2000 mg) and (2) placebo (PL; gluten-free cornstarch; 2000 mg). A total of 30 minutes prior to exercise, participants consumed their treatment. The participants were familiarized with the rowing ergometer and warmed up for 5 min at 50% of age-predicted heart rate max. Immediately following the warm-up, the participants completed a 2000 m rowing time trial. Blood lactate (La) was obtained with a lactate meter via finger prick before and after exercise. Power output, trial time, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and La were analyzed. The findings revealed no significant differences for the relative power output (p = 0.936), trial time (p = 0.842) or heart rate (p = 0.762). Rating of perceived exertion was lower with VA ingestion (p = 0.027). La was significantly higher post-exercise regardless of treatment (p < 0.001). However, post-exercise La was lower with VA ingestion (p = 0.032). Findings do not support VA as an ergogenic aid but suggest ingestion may alter metabolism resulting in less La formation and subjective fatigue. Full article
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Article
Buckwheat, Fava Bean and Hemp Flours Fortified with Anthocyanins and Other Bioactive Phytochemicals as Sustainable Ingredients for Functional Food Development
Nutraceuticals 2022, 2(3), 150-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals2030011 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Facing a climate emergency and an increasingly unhealthy population, functional foods should not only address health issues but must be prepared from sustainable ingredients while contributing to our sustainable development goals, such as tackling waste and promoting a healthy environment. High-protein crop flours, [...] Read more.
Facing a climate emergency and an increasingly unhealthy population, functional foods should not only address health issues but must be prepared from sustainable ingredients while contributing to our sustainable development goals, such as tackling waste and promoting a healthy environment. High-protein crop flours, i.e., buckwheat, hemp and fava bean, are investigated as potential matrices to be fortified with key bioactive phytochemicals from soft fruits to explore potential waste valorization and to deliver sustainable functional food ingredients. Hemp flour provided the best matrix for anthocyanin fortification, adsorbing of 88.45 ± 0.88% anthocyanins and 69.77 mg/kg of additional phytochemicals. Buckwheat and fava bean absorbed 78.64 ± 3.15% and 50.46 ± 2.94% of anthocyanins 118.22 mg/kg and 103.88 mg/kg of additional phytochemicals, respectively. During the fortification, there was no detectable adsorption of the berry sugars to the flours, and the quantities of free sugars from the flours were also removed. One gram of fortified hemp flour provides the same amount of anthocyanins found in 20 g of fresh bilberries but has substantially less sugar. The optimum conditions for high protein flour fortification with anthocyanins was established and showed that it is a viable way to reduce and valorize potential agricultural waste, contributing to a circular and greener nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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Review
Mushrooms as a Resource for Mibyou-Care Functional Food; The Role of Basidiomycetes-X (Shirayukidake) and Its Major Components
Nutraceuticals 2022, 2(3), 132-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals2030010 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Mibyou has been defined in traditional oriental medicine as a certain physiological condition whereby an individual is not ill but not healthy; it is also often referred to as a sub-healthy condition. In a society focused on longevity, “Mibyou-care” becomes of primary importance [...] Read more.
Mibyou has been defined in traditional oriental medicine as a certain physiological condition whereby an individual is not ill but not healthy; it is also often referred to as a sub-healthy condition. In a society focused on longevity, “Mibyou-care” becomes of primary importance for healthy lifespan expenditure. Functional foods can play crucial roles in Mibyou-care; thus, the search for novel resources of functional food is an important and attractive research field. Mushrooms are the target of such studies because of their wide variety of biological functions, such as immune modulation and anti-obesity and anticancer activities, in addition to their nutritional importance. Basidiomycetes-X (BDM-X; Shirayukidake in Japanese) is a mushroom which has several attractive beneficial health functions. A metabolome analysis revealed more than 470 components of both nutritional and functional interest in BDM-X. Further isolation and purification studies on its components using radical scavenging activity and UV absorbance identified ergosterol, (10E,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (CLA), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP), formyl pyrrole analogues (FPA), including 4-[2-foemyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-yl] butanamide (FPAII), adenosine and uridine as major components. Biological activities attributed to these components were related to the observed biological functions of BDM-X, which suggest that this novel mushroom is a useful resource for Mibyou-care functional foods and medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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