Next Article in Journal
Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation
Previous Article in Journal
Socioeconomic Variation in the Prevalence, Introduction, Retention, and Removal of Smoke-Free Policies among Smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Previous Article in Special Issue
Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 435-455;

A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive

Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA, Italy
Environment Agency, Red Kite House, Howbery Park, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BD, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Legislation and Public Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [296 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as “of high concern” where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration). This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water Framework Directive; priority substances; risk assessment Water Framework Directive; priority substances; risk assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Daginnus, K.; Gottardo, S.; Payá-Pérez, A.; Whitehouse, P.; Wilkinson, H.; Zaldívar, J.-M. A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 435-455.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top