Rethinking Local Economic Development for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Renosterberg Local Municipality, South Africa
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Setting and Dataset
2.3. Univariate and Qualitative Analyses
3.1. Univariate Spatial Comparative Analysis of RLM and SBLM
3.2. Drinking Culture, Drinking Motives, and FASD
3.2.1. Drinking Culture
3.2.2. Drinking Motives
3.3. Ryder’s Policy Development Process
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Name of Data Source||Source||Primary or Secondary Research||Publicly Available||N|
|1||Community Needs Assessment (1)||Statistics South Africa  and interviews with the communities of Petrusville and Philipstown, conducted by Company A||Secondary||No||Inconclusive|
|2||Community Needs Assessment (2)||Interviews with 25 persons from Petrusville and 25 persons from Philipstown, conducted by Company A||Secondary||No||50|
|3||In-depth Interviews||One person from Philipstown and one individual from Petrusville; interviews conducted by Company B||Secondary||No||2|
|4||In-depth Interviews||Three persons who implement projects in Petrusville and Philipstown; interviews conducted by authors||Primary||No||3|
|5||Demographic and economic data for RLM and South Africa||Statistics South Africa ||Secondary||Yes||7258|
|6||Municipal IDPs||Municipalities of South Africa ||Secondary||Yes||7258|
|7||Focus Groups||Thirty-seven residents from Petrusville and Philipstown; interviews conducted by authors||Primary||No||37|
|Number of households||2995||28,835||11,205,000||3563||35,550||16,622,000|
|Average household size||3.4||3.1%||3.6||3.3||3.2%||3.3|
|Working Age Population||6353||75,641||33,919,109||7258||90,463||39,302,982|
|Working Age Population (percentage)||61.5%||76.3%||65.5%||59.7%||71.9%||65.6%|
|Unemployment Rate (official)||30.32%||14.94%||24.45%||34.49%||23.12%||33.98%|
|Labour Force Participation Rate||53.58%||67.11%||55.91%||53.54%||67.39%||56.49%|
|Flushing toilet connected to a sewerage system||71.7%||92.5%||57.0%||77.4%||82.6%||60.6%|
|Weekly refuse removal||74.4%||96.6%||63.6%||52.2%||86.5%||61.0%|
|Piped water inside dwelling||53.4%||80.2%||46.3%||43.3%||74.8%||44.4%|
|Electricity for lighting||88.1%||97.0%||84.7%||86.3%||85.9%||90.3%|
|Sector||Number of Persons in RLM||Percentage of RLM Employment 1|
|Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing||795||43%|
|Mining and quarrying||3||0%|
|Electricity and gas and water supply||91||5%|
|Wholesale and retail trade||164||9%|
|Transport; storage, and communication||35||2%|
|Financial, insurance, real estate, and business services||31||2%|
|Community, social, and personal services||335||18%|
|Other and not adequately defined||0||0%|
|Education||Two high schools, four primary schools, and four Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres||Twenty-eight schools, including 13 primary schools, 4 high schools, 1 combined school, 5 intermediate schools, 1 special school, and 1 school of skills.|
|Health||Two clinics||One district hospital, eight fixed clinics, and two satellite clinics.|
|Community Infrastructure||Ten sports fields, four community halls, no transport networks||Transport networks including a harbour and industrial development zone (IDZ), at least seven sports fields, and seven community halls. There are also recreational opportunities such as holiday resorts.|
|Themes||Community Needs Assessment (2014)||In-Depth Interviews||Focus Groups|
|Access to alcohol||Petrusville: “People drink cheap wine–suurwyn and homemade beer soetgemmer”.||“We buy alcohol at registered alcohol establishments, but we can also buy homemade beer for R2, this is why the vulnerable can afford it”.|
“Money is not an issue to drink–you can also get alcohol on credit”.
|Drinking culture||Petrusville: FAS, alcohol abuse (a respondent estimated that 86% of the adult population are alcoholics).|
Philipstown: Excess intake of alcohol begins in adolescence and has resulted in a high number of cases of FASD.
|“It’s normal for us to drink when we pregnant. Hansa and Castle is good for the babies”.||“We don’t always drink with our children; children drink with their friends, and we drink with our friends”.|
|Income generation||“Alcohol plays an important role; every second house sells beer (as a source of income)”.|
|Theme||Community Needs Assessment (2014)||In-Depth Interviews||Focus Groups|
|Lack of recreational activities||No after-school activities for children.||“We drink because we are bored, especially over the weekend”.||“I drink because I am bored, it’s the only reason”.|
|Limited employment opportunities||“No opportunities, only municipal jobs”.|
Philipstown has no job opportunities”.
|Lack of role models||“We don’t have role models, our young people must make a U-turn, and be motivated”.|
|Lack of infrastructure||“We have observed more infrastructure in the communities, it appears like nothing is maintained”.|
|Poor human capital levels||“We have observed poor education and lack of skills”.||“Philipstown has no job opportunities”.|
|Link to gender-based violence or involuntary drinking||Petrusville: Most crimes are related to alcohol, for example, gender-based crimes or domestic violence.|
Philipstown: Increases in crime including rape are typically viewed as a consequence of alcohol misuse.
|“Husbands force us to drink sometimes in Petrusville”.|
|In-Depth Interviews||Focus Groups|
|Lack of Knowledge and Awareness||“Most mothers don’t know about the impacts of FAS (NGO A)”.||“It goes through one ear and then out the other when it comes to awareness training programs. I went through so many programs from (NGO A and government departments) at the clinics so the problem isn’t awareness, we have enough awareness”.|
|NGO A Presence||“I am aware of FAS, but only because I went to a course (hosted by NGO A)”.|
“I am aware of FAS because I stay near De Aar and my family and friends stay in De Aar. (NGO A) is present in De Aar for many years and does awareness training”.
|Perceptions of FASD||“I do think some of my family has FAS, especially when the children are rude or slow and we know that the children’s mothers drank during pregnancy”.||“We know that FAS is very high and we are well aware of high rates of FAS, nobody told us about the high rates but we can see it”.|
“I do know someone who has FAS–this child is 18, nobody told us before about FAS, the damage is already done. This child cannot finish school, and we force him to go to school because nobody understands”.
“I cannot get any children, so I don’t care about FAS”.
|Stage and Definition||Results for RLM|
Government decides that action is or is not required for a particular issue.
|The agenda-setting stage of the IDP is documented in detail in its process plan chapter (pages 6–18) . In addition, six community meetings were held to include feedback from the community on the development of the IDP.|
Government decides on the options for action that will be formulated.
|Issues in RLM were prioritised using a community and municipal priorities matrix. A sector analysis was completed and analysed. The sector analysis focuses on the spatial, social, economic, environmental, and institutional sectors .|
The exact problems and solutions are clarified.
|The problems, options, and opportunities for RLM are clarified and discussed in Chapter 3 of the IDP. Areas of need and community issues are identified per sector.|
Government considers the probable positive and negative consequences of policy implementation.
|The consequences of the IDP for RLM are not discussed or highlighted in the IDP. However, in the monitoring stage, the projected impact of the projects is mentioned.|
Government considers all options that will best address the issue.
|The IDP clearly outlines a methodology to identify and prioritise certain projects. The project design process was based on identifying a development priority, an objective, and a development strategy .|
Government sets relevant measurement indicators to track progress.
|Chapter 4 of the IDP outlines the priorities, vision, and mission for RLM. In addition, projects targeting specific community problems are carefully outlined in Chapter 6 of the IDP. Each project has a logical and detailed framework for execution, which includes a budget .|
Government monitors all consequences of the implemented policies (including unintended consequences).
|The monitoring of project progress is mentioned throughout the IDP. However, the IDP does not reflect on progress with respect to the previous goals. However, there are sub-sections in the IDP entitled “Progress on Delivery” and “Progress on Sanitation”.|
|Maintenance and Succession or Termination:|
Government decides to continue and amend the policy or discontinue the policy entirely.
|This stage is not applicable, as IDPs are mandatory for local municipalities.|
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Jordan, B.; Rashied, N.; Venter, M. Rethinking Local Economic Development for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Renosterberg Local Municipality, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054492
Jordan B, Rashied N, Venter M. Rethinking Local Economic Development for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Renosterberg Local Municipality, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(5):4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054492Chicago/Turabian Style
Jordan, Bianca, Naiefa Rashied, and Marius Venter. 2023. "Rethinking Local Economic Development for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Renosterberg Local Municipality, South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20, no. 5: 4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054492