# An Analysis of the Incidence and Cost of Intracranial Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Treatment between 2013 and 2021

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

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- Years from 2013 to 2021;
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- Patients hospitalised with the main diagnosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA);
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- Patients hospitalised with the main diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) regardless of its aetiology.

## 3. Results

#### The Analysis of Public Financing and Settlement of Therapies

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

- The overall number of patients hospitalised with diagnosis of UIA or SAH is not decreasing in subsequent years of observation. Thanks to early diagnosis and proper treatment of UIA, the risk of aneurysm rupture is probably declining, which results in improving the overall population health by lowering incidence of SAH—the type of stroke of relatively poor prognosis.
- The changes that were observed in the rate of change of the value of services prescribed per patient or per hospitalisation were highly consistent.
- When the gender of the patient was taken into account, the degree of concordance between the rate of change and the overall rate, as measured by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, was 98% for women and 78% for men. When comparing the SAH and UIA, the convergence rates were 84% and 80%, respectively.
- Not all provinces showed linear changes in the value of services provided, which unfortunately makes it difficult to speculate on their expected levels in subsequent periods of analysis. It is also worth remembering the recorded high inflation in the economy and paying attention to the dynamics of realised values of SAH and UIA diagnoses in constant prices according to the purchasing power parity of USD PPPs, which shows that in the years 2013–2021 in most of the provinces the increases did not exceed 10% of the completed services (Appendix A).

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Table A1.**The rate of patients with the type of the diagnosis reported by province per 100,000 inhabitants.

Province/Diagnosis | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Dolnoslaskie | 24.36 | 25.13 | 23.93 | 25.9 | 29.22 | 32.47 | 32.48 | 25.32 | 26.21 |

SAH | 11.55 | 11.62 | 10.67 | 8.85 | 9.61 | 8.44 | 8.97 | 7.68 | 8.96 |

UIA | 12.82 | 13.51 | 13.26 | 17.05 | 19.6 | 24.02 | 23.52 | 17.64 | 17.25 |

Kujawsko-Pomorskie | 19.88 | 21.96 | 25.21 | 23.13 | 24.48 | 21.9 | 26.01 | 19.5 | 22.07 |

SAH | 9.75 | 10.62 | 11.41 | 9.84 | 8.98 | 6.98 | 8.69 | 7.81 | 7.03 |

UIA | 10.13 | 11.34 | 13.8 | 13.29 | 15.51 | 14.92 | 17.32 | 11.69 | 15.04 |

Lubelskie | 21.01 | 22.02 | 26.22 | 24.75 | 23.94 | 24.74 | 25.52 | 17.28 | 17.19 |

SAH | 8.21 | 8.05 | 8.18 | 7.03 | 6.16 | 6.09 | 5.45 | 5.3 | 4.72 |

UIA | 12.8 | 13.97 | 18.04 | 17.72 | 17.78 | 18.65 | 20.06 | 11.98 | 12.47 |

Lubuskie | 11.16 | 12.55 | 10.9 | 11.01 | 12.1 | 10.94 | 11.17 | 11.02 | 15.21 |

SAH | 9.79 | 9.51 | 6.68 | 7.08 | 6.79 | 6.01 | 6.43 | 6.45 | 8.41 |

UIA | 1.37 | 3.04 | 4.22 | 3.93 | 5.31 | 4.93 | 4.74 | 4.57 | 6.81 |

Lodzkie | 17.31 | 19.29 | 18.89 | 19.19 | 19.71 | 18.69 | 18.9 | 14.89 | 14.07 |

SAH | 11.3 | 11.58 | 9.3 | 9.46 | 10.62 | 9.73 | 8.6 | 8.16 | 7.53 |

UIA | 6.01 | 7.71 | 9.58 | 9.74 | 9.09 | 8.96 | 10.31 | 6.73 | 6.54 |

Malopolskie | 15.71 | 17.43 | 18.12 | 18.63 | 21.76 | 20.17 | 18 | 17.15 | 17.61 |

SAH | 9.94 | 11.67 | 10.94 | 10.05 | 10.79 | 9.38 | 8.36 | 8.27 | 8.45 |

UIA | 5.77 | 5.76 | 7.18 | 8.57 | 10.97 | 10.79 | 9.65 | 8.88 | 9.16 |

Mazowieckie | 21.29 | 21.28 | 22.41 | 23.65 | 24.27 | 23.26 | 23.66 | 18.56 | 21.35 |

SAH | 10.61 | 9.52 | 10.38 | 9.04 | 9.16 | 8.38 | 8.78 | 7.98 | 7.93 |

UIA | 10.68 | 11.75 | 12.04 | 14.61 | 15.12 | 14.88 | 14.88 | 10.58 | 13.41 |

Opolskie | 16.93 | 17.09 | 14.06 | 16.01 | 19.09 | 18.55 | 18.01 | 11.67 | 8.56 |

SAH | 12.84 | 10.59 | 7.43 | 9.06 | 11.92 | 11.35 | 9.16 | 7.47 | 5.47 |

UIA | 4.08 | 6.49 | 6.63 | 6.95 | 7.17 | 7.2 | 8.85 | 4.2 | 3.09 |

Podkarpackie | 17.71 | 17.05 | 16.69 | 18 | 19.26 | 17.66 | 18.66 | 17.87 | 19.8 |

SAH | 11.79 | 10.14 | 10.86 | 10.34 | 10.85 | 10 | 10.15 | 8.25 | 9.33 |

UIA | 5.92 | 6.9 | 5.83 | 7.66 | 8.41 | 7.66 | 8.51 | 9.62 | 10.47 |

Podlaskie | 21.26 | 26.68 | 29.1 | 26.88 | 26.76 | 25.31 | 23.93 | 16.11 | 20 |

SAH | 9.04 | 8.39 | 9.08 | 7.08 | 7.18 | 6.77 | 7.89 | 5.28 | 7.72 |

UIA | 12.22 | 18.29 | 20.02 | 19.8 | 19.59 | 18.54 | 16.04 | 10.82 | 12.27 |

Pomorskie | 13.59 | 14.68 | 14.56 | 14.64 | 15.14 | 15.26 | 15.19 | 14.06 | 15.81 |

SAH | 9.36 | 8.99 | 8.84 | 8.29 | 8.43 | 7.8 | 8.49 | 8.05 | 8.39 |

UIA | 4.23 | 5.69 | 5.72 | 6.35 | 6.71 | 7.46 | 6.7 | 6.01 | 7.41 |

Slaskie | 18.42 | 18.75 | 21.09 | 19.7 | 20.82 | 22.63 | 24.81 | 20.57 | 19.44 |

SAH | 9.41 | 9.05 | 9.74 | 8.16 | 8.27 | 7.81 | 8.32 | 8.64 | 7.61 |

UIA | 9 | 9.7 | 11.35 | 11.54 | 12.55 | 14.82 | 16.49 | 11.93 | 11.83 |

Swietokrzyskie | 16.24 | 19.87 | 24.82 | 22.03 | 21.96 | 18.93 | 17.91 | 20.09 | 24.16 |

SAH | 10.88 | 10.61 | 9.78 | 10.62 | 11.22 | 10.63 | 8.59 | 10.7 | 8.82 |

UIA | 5.36 | 9.26 | 15.03 | 11.41 | 10.74 | 8.3 | 9.32 | 9.39 | 15.34 |

Warminsko-Mazurskie | 10.09 | 14.2 | 12.92 | 13.92 | 15.41 | 14.98 | 15.74 | 17.51 | 15.87 |

SAH | 6.63 | 9.42 | 7.92 | 7.8 | 9.14 | 9.17 | 8.29 | 10.02 | 8.89 |

UIA | 3.46 | 4.78 | 5 | 6.13 | 6.28 | 5.81 | 7.45 | 7.48 | 6.97 |

Wielkopolskie | 26.65 | 26.29 | 26.59 | 27.4 | 27.37 | 27.59 | 23.52 | 19.79 | 25.97 |

SAH | 12.14 | 10.65 | 10.65 | 10.68 | 10.12 | 9.56 | 9.43 | 9.01 | 8.51 |

UIA | 14.51 | 15.64 | 15.94 | 16.72 | 17.25 | 18.03 | 14.09 | 10.78 | 17.45 |

Zachodniopomorskie | 16.7 | 17.49 | 17.77 | 17.04 | 17.59 | 16.11 | 18.45 | 17.3 | 16.52 |

SAH | 8.96 | 8.86 | 8.71 | 7.55 | 8.5 | 7.11 | 8.37 | 7.52 | 7.33 |

UIA | 7.74 | 8.63 | 9.06 | 9.48 | 9.09 | 8.99 | 10.08 | 9.77 | 9.18 |

**Table A2.**Changes in the levels of reported services per patient by value in PLN (PLN) for provinces in the years 2013–2021 in total and for SAH and UIA diagnoses.

Description | 2014/2013 | 2015/2014 | 2016/2015 | 2017/2016 | 2018/2017 | 2019/2018 | 2020/2019 | 2021/2020 | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | |

Poland | 360.63 | 358.46 | 431.22 | 207.77 | 195.73 | 446.73 | −1554.35 | −1771.3 | 1856.6 | 3130.06 | 521.61 | 622.67 | 780.54 | 1299.88 | 886.52 | 2227.19 |

Dolnoslaskie | −330.86 | 1017.36 | 784.75 | 394.7 | 942.65 | 1519.67 | −2002.37 | −3455.13 | 2532.43 | 4591.81 | −768.19 | 821.82 | 3702.42 | 2685.44 | −894.51 | 2844.98 |

Kujawsko-pomorskie | 83.34 | 719.76 | 1149.94 | −487.74 | 710.68 | 349.89 | −1657.43 | −1728.76 | 497.88 | 2513.73 | 2067.76 | 951.26 | −193.81 | 1417.91 | 753.24 | 509.69 |

Lubelskie | 367.82 | 679.49 | 183.3 | 133.32 | 396.1 | −629.28 | −37.39 | −13.31 | −378.33 | 3067.88 | 1489.49 | 787.47 | −267.85 | 738.55 | 1096.5 | 3557.12 |

Lubuskie | −233.01 | 575.24 | −1040.72 | 750.23 | −337.46 | −1452.62 | −1263.89 | 2761.17 | 1385.5 | −589.58 | −1214.5 | −608.04 | 1418.39 | 2473.04 | 3181.92 | 1219.43 |

Lodzkie | −466.38 | −223.75 | 2233.68 | 198.83 | −2735.19 | 780.79 | −453.86 | −2163.82 | 1472.03 | 1187.04 | −1057.64 | −171.52 | 4327.68 | 870.16 | −803.13 | 1085.51 |

Malopolskie | 1062.01 | −275.62 | 450.25 | 1678.42 | −123.4 | 957.48 | −4116.66 | −3082.4 | 2936.77 | 2634.15 | 435.65 | 463.65 | −1234.86 | 594.55 | 3460.23 | 1002.41 |

Mazowieckie | 465.04 | 831.45 | 573.3 | 255.17 | 594.83 | 828.66 | −1637.46 | −1208.01 | 2397.87 | 3365.81 | −178.22 | 798.02 | 1715.2 | 2443.46 | −511.54 | 1054.6 |

Opolskie | −123.36 | 277.4 | −895.67 | −360.44 | 994.71 | −588.76 | 237.49 | 788.18 | 1133.54 | 402.96 | 437.75 | 1786.44 | −1549.06 | −874.61 | 635.57 | 336.41 |

Podkarpackie | 672.79 | 352.22 | 289.67 | 402.22 | 1315.48 | −323.47 | −1849.47 | −128.47 | 4181.63 | 504.26 | −763.18 | 840.87 | 423.26 | 840.92 | 2.41 | 1340.32 |

Podlaskie | 2107.4 | 646.91 | 743.52 | 663.18 | 196.63 | −409.42 | −2774.54 | −1488.02 | 2748.19 | 2697.47 | −43.83 | −272.52 | −472.14 | 969.57 | 81.89 | −490.75 |

Pomorskie | −609.61 | 476.75 | 287.84 | 623.82 | −365.73 | 198.38 | −52.57 | 46.3 | 1306.27 | 3950.92 | −1026.19 | −1644.79 | 2003.44 | 2873.8 | 2857.47 | 1619.99 |

Slaskie | −121 | 646.45 | 881.62 | −402.49 | 213.99 | 463.92 | −916.19 | −2228.45 | 1294.21 | 3539.93 | 631.84 | 164.29 | 1597.6 | 1565.03 | 2092.97 | 2728.27 |

Swietokrzyskie | 318.85 | −400.43 | 1333.97 | −300.73 | −482.01 | 1072.29 | −1463.12 | −2268.77 | 1323.57 | 3610.75 | 3189.49 | 1991.36 | −29.17 | 467.46 | 4652.93 | 2810.89 |

Warminsko-mazurskie | −310.47 | 184.86 | 1029.74 | 479.2 | 129.44 | −584.72 | −920.63 | −335.1 | −791.86 | 911.76 | 2583.05 | 2413.25 | 519.33 | 3752.06 | 1833.67 | −1832.5 |

Wielkopolskie | 1096.99 | 464.07 | −1781.03 | 36.05 | 630.86 | 171.08 | −2164.11 | −3019.65 | 3726.02 | 4290.06 | 695.51 | 2439.85 | −1673.68 | −1761.32 | −796.2 | 4367.88 |

Zachodniopomorskie | 2542 | 207.53 | −2119.6 | 720.59 | 977.67 | 249.84 | −7.53 | −2675.4 | −861.18 | 2994.25 | 3373.54 | 2616.16 | 448.38 | −121.6 | −1991.55 | 3781.93 |

**Table A3.**Changes in levels of reported value of services per patient in PPP value terms (USD PPP) by province from 2013 to 2021 in total and for SAH and UIA diagnoses.

Description | 2014/2013 | 2015/2014 | 2016/2015 | 2017/2016 | 2018/2017 | 2019/2018 | 2020/2019 | 2021/2020 | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | |

Poland | 196.31 | 195.13 | 234.74 | 113.10 | 106.55 | 243.18 | −846.14 | −964.24 | 1010.67 | 1703.90 | 283.95 | 338.96 | 424.90 | 707.61 | 482.59 | 1212.41 |

Dolnoslaskie | −180.11 | 553.82 | 427.19 | 214.86 | 513.15 | 827.26 | −1090.02 | −1880.85 | 1378.57 | 2499.62 | −418.18 | 447.37 | 2015.47 | 1461.86 | −486.94 | 1548.71 |

Kujawsko-pomorskie | 45.37 | 391.81 | 625.99 | −265.51 | 386.87 | 190.47 | −902.25 | −941.08 | 271.03 | 1368.39 | 1125.62 | 517.83 | −105.50 | 771.86 | 410.04 | 277.46 |

Lubelskie | 200.23 | 369.89 | 99.78 | 72.57 | 215.62 | −342.56 | −20.35 | −7.25 | −205.95 | 1670.05 | 810.83 | 428.67 | −145.81 | 402.04 | 596.90 | 1936.37 |

Lubuskie | −126.84 | 313.14 | −566.53 | 408.40 | −183.70 | −790.76 | −688.02 | 1503.09 | 754.22 | −320.95 | −661.13 | −331.00 | 772.12 | 1346.24 | 1732.13 | 663.82 |

Lodzkie | −253.88 | −121.80 | 1215.94 | 108.24 | −1488.94 | 425.04 | −247.07 | −1177.91 | 801.32 | 646.18 | −575.74 | −93.37 | 2355.84 | 473.69 | −437.20 | 590.91 |

Malopolskie | 578.12 | −150.04 | 245.10 | 913.67 | −67.17 | 521.22 | −2240.97 | −1677.95 | 1598.68 | 1433.94 | 237.15 | 252.40 | −672.22 | 323.65 | 1883.63 | 545.68 |

Mazowieckie | 253.15 | 452.61 | 312.08 | 138.91 | 323.81 | 451.09 | −891.38 | −657.60 | 1305.32 | 1832.23 | −97.02 | 434.41 | 933.70 | 1330.14 | −278.46 | 574.09 |

Opolskie | −67.15 | 151.01 | −487.57 | −196.21 | 541.49 | −320.50 | 129.28 | 429.06 | 617.06 | 219.36 | 238.30 | 972.48 | −843.26 | −476.11 | 345.98 | 183.13 |

Podkarpackie | 366.24 | 191.74 | 157.69 | 218.95 | 716.10 | −176.09 | −1006.79 | −69.93 | 2276.34 | 274.50 | −415.45 | 457.74 | 230.41 | 457.77 | 1.31 | 729.62 |

Podlaskie | 1147.20 | 352.16 | 404.75 | 361.01 | 107.04 | −222.87 | −1510.36 | −810.03 | 1496.02 | 1468.41 | −23.86 | −148.35 | −257.02 | 527.80 | 44.58 | −267.15 |

Pomorskie | −331.85 | 259.53 | 156.69 | 339.59 | −199.09 | 107.99 | −28.62 | 25.20 | 711.09 | 2150.75 | −558.62 | −895.37 | 1090.60 | 1564.40 | 1555.51 | 881.87 |

Slaskie | −65.87 | 351.91 | 479.92 | −219.10 | 116.49 | 252.54 | −498.74 | −1213.09 | 704.52 | 1927.02 | 343.95 | 89.43 | 869.68 | 851.95 | 1139.34 | 1485.18 |

Swietokrzyskie | 173.57 | −217.98 | 726.17 | −163.71 | −262.39 | 583.72 | −796.47 | −1235.04 | 720.51 | 1965.57 | 1736.25 | 1084.03 | −15.88 | 254.47 | 2532.90 | 1530.15 |

Warminsko-mazurskie | −169.01 | 100.63 | 560.56 | 260.86 | 70.46 | −318.30 | −501.16 | −182.42 | −431.06 | 496.33 | 1406.12 | 1313.69 | 282.71 | 2042.49 | 998.19 | −997.55 |

Wielkopolskie | 597.16 | 252.62 | −969.53 | 19.62 | 343.42 | 93.13 | −1178.07 | −1643.79 | 2028.32 | 2335.36 | 378.61 | 1328.17 | −911.09 | −958.80 | −433.42 | 2377.72 |

Zachodniopomorskie | 1383.78 | 112.97 | −1153.84 | 392.26 | 532.21 | 136.00 | −4.10 | −1456.40 | −468.80 | 1629.97 | 1836.44 | 1424.15 | 244.08 | −66.19 | −1084.13 | 2058.75 |

## Appendix B. Statistical Methods Used in Paper

_{i}= (R

_{Xi}− R

_{Yi}) is the difference between the ranks of variables X and Y for i-th observation, n is the number of analysed observations. The higher the value of the Spearman’s rank coefficient module, the higher the degree of concordance the evaluated variables showed, while the sign of the non-parametric correlation coefficient indicated concordance or the complete opposite of the course of concordance.

_{1}is a marginal propensity to consume that reports the change in the dependent variable caused by a unit change of time. The sign of the β

_{1}parameter indicates an increase (positive sign) or decrease (negative sign) in the average level of the phenomenon over time. For the estimation of partial elasticities, a power model (non-linear model reduced to linear form) of the form was used:

_{1}made it possible to assess approximately how much the dependent variable would change if the independent variable changed by 1 % point.

- -
- The coefficient of determination R
^{2}, which indicates how much of the total variation in the dependent variable is explained by the mode and is calculated as follows:$${R}^{2}=1-\frac{\sum {\left({y}_{t}-\widehat{{y}_{t}}\right)}^{2}}{\sum {\left({y}_{t}-\overline{{y}_{t}}\right)}^{2}}$$

- -
- The standard error of the model which indicates how much the average observed values of the dependent variable differ ± from the theoretical values of this variable determined from the model and is calculated as follows:$${\mathrm{S}}_{e}=\sqrt{\frac{\sum {\left({y}_{t}-\widehat{{y}_{t}}\right)}^{2}}{n-k-1}}$$

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Diagnosis/Sex | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SAHall | 3944 | 3857 | 3765 | 3448 | 3563 | 3251 | 3262 | 3075 | 3012 |

Women | 2316 | 2270 | 2185 | 2019 | 2147 | 1906 | 1921 | 1843 | 1766 |

Men | 1628 | 1587 | 1580 | 1429 | 1416 | 1345 | 1341 | 1232 | 1246 |

UIAall | 3366 | 3858 | 4276 | 4621 | 4925 | 5112 | 5145 | 3901 | 4471 |

Women | 2462 | 2744 | 3073 | 3328 | 3572 | 3737 | 3799 | 2883 | 3342 |

Men | 904 | 1114 | 1203 | 1293 | 1353 | 1375 | 1346 | 1018 | 1129 |

Diagnosis/Sex | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SAH all | 10.25 | 10.02 | 9.80 | 8.97 | 9.27 | 8.46 | 8.50 | 8.04 | 7.91 |

Women | 11.66 | 11.43 | 11.01 | 10.18 | 10.82 | 9.61 | 9.69 | 9.33 | 8.98 |

Men | 8.74 | 8.52 | 8.50 | 7.69 | 7.62 | 7.24 | 7.22 | 6.66 | 6.77 |

UIA all | 8.74 | 10.03 | 11.12 | 12.02 | 12.81 | 13.31 | 13.40 | 10.19 | 11.74 |

Women | 12.39 | 13.82 | 15.49 | 16.77 | 18.00 | 18.85 | 19.17 | 14.59 | 16.99 |

Men | 4.85 | 5.98 | 6.47 | 6.95 | 7.28 | 7.40 | 7.25 | 5.50 | 6.13 |

**Table 3.**The change in levels of reported value of medical services per patient—a summary of linear trend functions and medium-term rates of change from 2013 to 2021 for SAH and UIA diagnoses *.

Description | Summary of Trend Models, with p-Values for Coefficient with Determination Factor, Standard Error of the Model and Average Annual Rate of Change Value of Services per Patient in PLN | |
---|---|---|

SAH | UIA | |

Poland | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{175,332}+\mathrm{10,624.7}t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.0061\right)\\ {R}^{2}=68.19\%{S}_{e}=\mathrm{21,241.98}\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 10.75% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{114,296}+\mathrm{19,382.2}t\\ \left(0.0015\right)\left(0.0020\right)\\ {R}^{2}=76.63\%{S}_{e}=\mathrm{31,333.86}\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 19.81% |

Dolnoslaskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{13,515.3}+1021.97t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.009\right)\\ {R}^{2}=64.6\%{S}_{e}=2217.25\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 9.83% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=6752.14+2126.34t\\ \left(0.0333\right)\left(0.0022\right)\\ {R}^{2}=75.81\%{S}_{e}=3516.23\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 28.86% |

Kujawsko-Pomorskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=9711.93+717.952t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.0057\right)\\ {R}^{2}=68.76\%{S}_{e}=1416.58\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 12.32% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=9517.01+948.78t\\ \left(0.0005\right)\left(0.0104\right)\\ {R}^{2}=63.24\%{S}_{e}=2117.79\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 13.52% |

Lubelskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=4602.16+553.50t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.001\right)\\ {R}^{2}=80.51\%{S}_{e}=797.34\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 18.62% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=4820.54+1684.50t\\ \left(0.0411\right)\left(0.0017\right)\\ {R}^{2}=77.52\%{S}_{e}=2655.56\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 28.83% |

Lubuskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=7318.18+51.67t\\ \left(0.009\right)\left({0.893}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=0.27\%{S}_{e}=2869.63\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 8.10% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=4546.33+1007.65t\\ \left(0.0113\right)\left(0.0038\right)\\ {R}^{2}=72.09\%{S}_{e}=1835.20\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 26.21% |

Lodzkie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{11,366.5}+517.35t\\ \left(0.001\right)\left({0.219}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=20.61\%{S}_{e}=2971.88\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 7.81% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=7342.19+203.46t\\ \left(0.001\right)\left({0.3305}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=13.51\%{S}_{e}=1507.20\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 7.75% |

Malopolskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{16,985.8}+110.46t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left({0.788}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=11.0\%{S}_{e}=3065.36\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 7.12% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=8653.87+830.49t\\ \left(0.0005\right)\left(0.0136\right)\\ {R}^{2}=60.48\%{S}_{e}=3065.36\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 14.74% |

Mazowieckie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{11,429.0}+832.37t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.002\right)\\ {R}^{2}=74.95\%{S}_{e}=1408.50\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 10.71% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=9120.13+1918.22t\\ \left(0.0007\right)\left(0.0003\right)\\ {R}^{2}=86.80\%{S}_{e}=2189.85\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 21.86% |

Opolskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=5330.12+353.26t\\ \left(0.0008\right)\left({0.073}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=38.83\%{S}_{e}=1297.93\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 5.72% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=3614.71+505.18t\\ \left(0.0052\right)\left(0.0162\right)\\ {R}^{2}=58.59\%{S}_{e}=1243.37\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 13.36% |

Podkarpackie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=8557.02+1101.70t\\ \left(0.0004\right)\left(0.0025\right)\\ {R}^{2}=75.22\%{S}_{e}=1850.87\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 15.96% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=3002.01+731.32t\\ \left(0.0123\right)\left(0.0025\right)\\ {R}^{2}=75.01\%{S}_{e}=1235.62\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 26.56% |

Podlaskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{14,018.0}+360.31t\\ \left(0.0004\right)\left({0.2198}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=20.60\%{S}_{e}=2070.97\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 8.79% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=6891.95+551.43t\\ \left(0.0004\right)\left(0.0248\right)\\ {R}^{2}=53.66\%{S}_{e}=1500.01\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 12.12% |

Pomorskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=8556.29+766.64t\\ \left(0.0017\right)\left(0.0417\right)\\ {R}^{2}=46.93\%{S}_{e}=2386.44\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 14.10% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=3501.33+1831.63t\\ \left({0.0588}\right)\left(0.0003\right)\\ {R}^{2}=86.29\%{S}_{e}=2137.14\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 33.16% |

Slaskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{10,321.7}+1121.65t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left(0.0025\right)\\ {R}^{2}=75.22\%{S}_{e}=1884.50\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 15.84% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=7215.75+1237.08t\\ \left(0.0112\right)\left(0.0132\right)\\ {R}^{2}=60.79\%{S}_{e}=2908.60\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 20.94% |

Swietokrzyskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=5878.66+1591.84t\\ \left(0.0499\right)\left(0.0087\right)\\ {R}^{2}=64.99\%{S}_{e}=3419.94\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 28.26% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=6780.06+1585.99t\\ \left(0.0217\right)\left(0.0061\right)\\ {R}^{2}=68.16\%{S}_{e}=3173.08\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 20.11% |

Warminsko-Mazurskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{10,441.5}+741.65t\\ \left(0.0002\right)\left(0.0288\right)\\ {R}^{2}=51.78\%{S}_{e}=2095.13\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 12.49% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=3319.80+1385.45t\\ \left({0.1698}\right)\left(0.0088\right)\\ {R}^{2}=64.84\%{S}_{e}=2986.31\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 23.43% |

Wielkopolskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{21,889.1}+140.123t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left({0.6803}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=02.57\%{S}_{e}=2525.35\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = −0.56% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{16,085.4}+1330.40t\\ \left(0.0005\right)\left(0.0261\right)\\ {R}^{2}=53.01\%{S}_{e}=3666.99\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 13.40% |

Zachodniopomorskie | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{15,410.2}+642.24t\\ \left(0.0001\right)\left({0.0725}\right)\\ {R}^{2}=38.94\%{S}_{e}=2354.50\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 6.49% | $\begin{array}{c}\widehat{C}=\mathrm{13,133.2}+1504.29t\\ \left(0.0010\right)\left(0.0100\right)\\ {R}^{2}=63.58\%{S}_{e}=3333.13\end{array}$ $\overline{{i}_{g}}$ = 16.51% |

**Table 4.**The change in levels of reported services per patient by value for provinces from 2013 to 2021 in total and for SAH and UIA diagnoses.

Description | 2014/2013 | 2015/2014 | 2016/2015 | 2017/2016 | 2018/2017 | 2019/2018 | 2020/2019 | 2021/2020 | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | SAH | UIA | |

Poland | 662.49 | 658.49 | 792.15 | 381.68 | 359.55 | 820.65 | −2855.35 | −3253.87 | 3410.57 | 5749.92 | 958.19 | 1143.84 | 1433.86 | 2387.88 | 1628.54 | 4091.34 |

Dolnoslaskie | −607.78 | 1868.88 | 1441.59 | 725.07 | 1731.64 | 2791.63 | −3678.35 | −6347.08 | 4652.07 | 8435.16 | −1411.17 | 1509.68 | 6801.34 | 4933.16 | −1643.21 | 5226.23 |

Kujawsko-pomorskie | 153.09 | 1322.21 | 2112.44 | −895.98 | 1305.52 | 642.75 | −3044.70 | −3175.73 | 914.61 | 4617.72 | 3798.48 | 1747.46 | −356.03 | 2604.70 | 1383.71 | 936.31 |

Lubelskie | 675.69 | 1248.23 | 336.73 | 244.91 | 727.63 | −1155.99 | −68.68 | −24.46 | −695.00 | 5635.70 | 2736.19 | 1446.58 | −492.05 | 1356.72 | 2014.27 | 6534.43 |

Lubuskie | −428.04 | 1056.71 | −1911.80 | 1378.18 | −619.92 | −2668.46 | −2321.76 | 5072.28 | 2545.17 | −1083.05 | −2231.03 | −1116.97 | 2605.58 | 4542.98 | 5845.19 | 2240.10 |

Lodzkie | −856.73 | −411.03 | 4103.27 | 365.25 | −5024.54 | 1434.32 | −833.73 | −3974.94 | 2704.11 | 2180.59 | −1942.88 | −315.08 | 7949.94 | 1598.48 | −1475.36 | 1994.08 |

Malopolskie | 1950.92 | −506.31 | 827.11 | 3083.26 | −226.68 | 1758.89 | −7562.30 | −5662.37 | 5394.84 | 4838.94 | 800.29 | 851.72 | −2268.44 | 1092.18 | 6356.44 | 1841.43 |

Mazowieckie | 854.29 | 1527.38 | 1053.15 | 468.75 | 1092.69 | 1522.24 | −3008.01 | −2219.11 | 4404.88 | 6182.99 | −327.39 | 1465.97 | 3150.81 | 4488.63 | −939.70 | 1937.30 |

Opolskie | −226.61 | 509.58 | −1645.35 | −662.14 | 1827.29 | −1081.55 | 436.28 | 1447.88 | 2082.32 | 740.25 | 804.15 | 3281.70 | −2845.62 | −1606.65 | 1167.54 | 617.98 |

Podkarpackie | 1235.92 | 647.02 | 532.13 | 738.88 | 2416.54 | −594.21 | −3397.48 | −236.01 | 7681.66 | 926.32 | −1401.96 | 1544.67 | 777.52 | 1544.78 | 15797.00 | 2462.16 |

Podlaskie | 3871.29 | 1188.37 | 1365.85 | 1218.27 | 361.21 | −752.11 | −5096.83 | −2733.48 | 5048.43 | 4955.26 | −80.52 | −500.63 | −867.32 | 1781.11 | 150.43 | −901.50 |

Pomorskie | −1119.84 | 875.79 | 528.77 | 1145.95 | −671.84 | 364.43 | −96.56 | 85.05 | 2399.62 | 7257.84 | −1885.12 | −3021.49 | 3680.32 | 5279.16 | 5249.17 | 2975.91 |

Slaskie | −222.27 | 1187.53 | 1619.53 | −739.38 | 393.11 | 852.22 | −1683.04 | −4093.66 | 2377.47 | 6502.86 | 1160.69 | 301.80 | 2934.78 | 2874.96 | 3844.79 | 5011.84 |

Swietokrzyskie | 585.72 | −735.59 | 2450.50 | −552.44 | −885.45 | 1969.79 | −2687.75 | −4167.73 | 2431.40 | 6632.96 | 5859.09 | 3658.13 | −53.58 | 858.73 | 8547.43 | 5163.61 |

Warminsko-mazurskie | −570.33 | 339.59 | 1891.63 | 880.30 | 237.78 | −1074.14 | −1691.19 | −615.59 | −1454.64 | 1674.90 | 4745.06 | 4433.13 | 954.01 | 6892.53 | 3368.45 | −3366.31 |

Wielkopolskie | 2015.17 | 852.50 | −3271.76 | 66.23 | 1158.88 | 314.28 | −3975.47 | −5547.11 | 6844.71 | 7880.84 | 1277.66 | 4482.01 | −3074.55 | −3235.55 | −1462.61 | 8023.80 |

Zachodniopomorskie | 4669.65 | 381.23 | −3893.70 | 1323.72 | 1795.98 | 458.95 | −13.84 | −4914.72 | −1582.00 | 5500.44 | 6197.20 | 4805.89 | 823.68 | −223.39 | −3658.48 | 6947.40 |

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Śliwczyński, A.; Jewczak, M.; Dorobek, M.; Furlepa, K.; Gołębiak, I.; Skibińska, E.; Sarzyńska-Długosz, I.
An Analysis of the Incidence and Cost of Intracranial Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Treatment between 2013 and 2021. *Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health* **2023**, *20*, 3828.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20053828

**AMA Style**

Śliwczyński A, Jewczak M, Dorobek M, Furlepa K, Gołębiak I, Skibińska E, Sarzyńska-Długosz I.
An Analysis of the Incidence and Cost of Intracranial Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Treatment between 2013 and 2021. *International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health*. 2023; 20(5):3828.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20053828

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Śliwczyński, Andrzej, Maciej Jewczak, Małgorzata Dorobek, Kamila Furlepa, Izabela Gołębiak, Edyta Skibińska, and Iwona Sarzyńska-Długosz.
2023. "An Analysis of the Incidence and Cost of Intracranial Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Treatment between 2013 and 2021" *International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health* 20, no. 5: 3828.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20053828