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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Formal and Informal Spatial Coastal Area Planning Process in Baltic Sea Region

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Institute of the Civil Engineering and Real Estate Economics, Riga Technical University, 1048 Riga, Latvia
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The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, 1494 Riga, Latvia
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Saaremaa Municipality, 93819 Kuressaare, Estonia
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The Government of Åland, 22 100 Mariehamn, Finland
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Mariehamn Municipality, 22 101 Mariehamn, Finland
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Norrköping Municipality, 601 81 Norrköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Dolores Esteban
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094895
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability in Maritime Infrastructures)
Many shared views of both scholars and practitioners reflect spatial planning as a place-creating process that must be understood from a multi-level perspective. Formal and informal planning modes have variations in planning practices in different countries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the interaction of formal and informal spatial planning in the frame of the spatial planning system in the Baltic Sea region. We were searching to highlight the involvement possibilities of territorial communities in the spatial planning process around the Baltic Sea region, focusing on coastal areas and their specific features in Latvia, Estonia, the Åland Islands of Finland, and Sweden. Involved experts expressed views based on a pre-developed model to identify how institutionalized formal spatial planning relates with informal interventions. This allowed the development and proposal of a model for coastal area spatial planning and implementation. We concluded that in the spatial planning approach, the governance works differently in different countries, and coastal area spatial planning differs from regular spatial planning. The information base is sufficient to initiate spatial planning at the municipal level, but municipalities should be more active, involving territorial communities in the planning, implementation, and control of municipal spatial planning, as this ensures a greater interest in the use of planning outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: formal planning; informal planning; spatial planning process; coastal area spatial planning; planning levels; community involvement; territorial community; coastal communities formal planning; informal planning; spatial planning process; coastal area spatial planning; planning levels; community involvement; territorial community; coastal communities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pudzis, E.; Geipele, S.; Auzins, A.; Lazdins, A.; Butnicka, J.; Krumina, K.; Ciuksa, I.; Kalinka, M.; Krutova, U.; Grimitliht, M.; Prii-Pärn, M.; Björklund, C.; Vävare, S.; Hagström, J.; Granqvist, I.; Hallor, M.J. Evaluation of Formal and Informal Spatial Coastal Area Planning Process in Baltic Sea Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4895. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094895

AMA Style

Pudzis E, Geipele S, Auzins A, Lazdins A, Butnicka J, Krumina K, Ciuksa I, Kalinka M, Krutova U, Grimitliht M, Prii-Pärn M, Björklund C, Vävare S, Hagström J, Granqvist I, Hallor MJ. Evaluation of Formal and Informal Spatial Coastal Area Planning Process in Baltic Sea Region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4895. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094895

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pudzis, Edgars; Geipele, Sanda; Auzins, Armands; Lazdins, Andrejs; Butnicka, Jevgenija; Krumina, Krista; Ciuksa, Indra; Kalinka, Maris; Krutova, Una; Grimitliht, Mark; Prii-Pärn, Marii; Björklund, Charlotta; Vävare, Susanne; Hagström, Johanna; Granqvist, Ingela; Hallor, Malin J. 2021. "Evaluation of Formal and Informal Spatial Coastal Area Planning Process in Baltic Sea Region" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 9: 4895. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094895

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