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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of a Wearable Non-Invasive Thermometer for Monitoring Ear Canal Temperature during Physically Demanding (Outdoor) Work

1
Department of Rehabilitation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Medicine, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Center for Applied Research and Innovation in Health Care and in Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, 9747 AS Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Institute for Safety (IFV), Knowledge Center Occupational Safety, 6816 RW Arnhem, The Netherlands
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chiara Burattini, Alberto Modenese, Andrea Militello and Giacomo Salvadori
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094896
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 30 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety: Outdoor Workers and Sun Exposure)
Aimed at preventing heat strain, health problems, and absenteeism among workers with physically demanding occupations, a continuous, accurate, non-invasive measuring system may help such workers monitor their body (core) temperature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and explore the usability of the wearable non-invasive Cosinuss° °Temp thermometer. Ear canal temperature was monitored in 49 workers in real-life working conditions. After individual correction, the results of the laboratory and field study revealed high correlations compared to ear canal infrared thermometry for hospital use. After performance of the real-life working tasks, this correlation was found to be moderate. It was also observed that the ambient environmental outdoor conditions and personal protective clothing influenced the accuracy and resulted in unrealistic ear canal temperature outliers. It was found that the Cosinuss° °Temp thermometer did not result in significant interference during work. Therefore, it was concluded that, without a correction factor, the Cosinuss° °Temp thermometer is inaccurate. Nevertheless, with a correction factor, the reliability of this wearable ear canal thermometer was confirmed at rest, but not in outdoor working conditions or while wearing a helmet or hearing protection equipment. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal physiology; heat strain; overheating thermal physiology; heat strain; overheating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roossien, C.C.; Hodselmans, A.P.; Heus, R.; Reneman, M.F.; Verkerke, G.J. Evaluation of a Wearable Non-Invasive Thermometer for Monitoring Ear Canal Temperature during Physically Demanding (Outdoor) Work. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094896

AMA Style

Roossien CC, Hodselmans AP, Heus R, Reneman MF, Verkerke GJ. Evaluation of a Wearable Non-Invasive Thermometer for Monitoring Ear Canal Temperature during Physically Demanding (Outdoor) Work. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094896

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roossien, Charlotte C.; Hodselmans, Audy P.; Heus, Ronald; Reneman, Michiel F.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J. 2021. "Evaluation of a Wearable Non-Invasive Thermometer for Monitoring Ear Canal Temperature during Physically Demanding (Outdoor) Work" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 9: 4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094896

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