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Article

Neighborhood Environment Associates with Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker

1
Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Social Determinants of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3
Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Minority and Health Disparities, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Man-Kit Lei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084296
Received: 14 January 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhoods and Cardiovascular Risk)
Background: Neighborhoods and the microbiome are linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet investigations to identify microbiome-related factors at neighborhood levels have not been widely investigated. We sought to explore relationships between neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) and the microbial metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide. We hypothesized that inflammatory markers and dietary intake would be mediators of the relationship. Methods: African-American adults at risk for CVD living in the Washington, DC area were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional community-based study. US census-based neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measures (at the census-tract level) were determined. Serum samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors, cytokines, and the microbial metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Self-reported dietary intake based on food groups was collected. Results: Study participants (n = 60) were predominantly female (93.3%), with a mean (SD) age of 60.83 (+/−10.52) years. Mean (SD) NDI was −1.54 (2.94), and mean (SD) TMAO level was 4.99 (9.65) µmol/L. Adjusting for CVD risk factors and BMI, NDI was positively associated with TMAO (β = 0.31, p = 0.02). Using mediation analysis, the relationship between NDI and TMAO was significantly mediated by TNF-α (60.15%) and interleukin)-1 β (IL; 49.96%). When controlling for clustering within neighborhoods, the NDI-TMAO association was no longer significant (β = 5.11, p = 0.11). However, the association between NDI and IL-1 β (β = 0.04, p = 0.004) and TNF-α (β = 0.17, p = 0.003) remained. Neither NDI nor TMAO was significantly associated with daily dietary intake. Conclusion and Relevance: Among a small sample of African-American adults at risk for CVD, there was a significant positive relationship with NDI and TMAO mediated by inflammation. These hypothesis-generating results are initial and need to be confirmed in larger studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: neighborhood deprivation; trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO); cardiovascular disease; inflammation; cytokines neighborhood deprivation; trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO); cardiovascular disease; inflammation; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farmer, N.; Gutierrez-Huerta, C.A.; Turner, B.S.; Mitchell, V.M.; Collins, B.S.; Baumer, Y.; Wallen, G.R.; Powell-Wiley, T.M. Neighborhood Environment Associates with Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084296

AMA Style

Farmer N, Gutierrez-Huerta CA, Turner BS, Mitchell VM, Collins BS, Baumer Y, Wallen GR, Powell-Wiley TM. Neighborhood Environment Associates with Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farmer, Nicole, Cristhian A. Gutierrez-Huerta, Briana S. Turner, Valerie M. Mitchell, Billy S. Collins, Yvonne Baumer, Gwenyth R. Wallen, and Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley 2021. "Neighborhood Environment Associates with Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084296

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