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Article

Detection of Free-Living Amoebae and Their Intracellular Bacteria in Borehole Water before and after a Ceramic Pot Filter Point-of-Use Intervention in Rural Communities in South Africa

1
Water and Health Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2094, South Africa
2
CB Scientific, Roodepoort 1724, South Africa
3
Environmental Health, Domestic Hygiene and Microbial Pathogens Research Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 1950, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcela França Dias and Ivone Vaz-Moreira
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083912
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Drinking Water Quality)
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in nature, whereas amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) have evolved virulent mechanisms that allow them to resist FLA digestion mechanisms and survive inside the amoeba during hostile environmental conditions. This study assessed the prevalence of FLA and ARB species in borehole water before and after a ceramic point-of-use intervention in rural households. A total of 529 water samples were collected over a five-month period from 82 households. All water samples were subjected to amoebal enrichment, bacterial isolation on selective media, and molecular identification using 16S PCR/sequencing to determine ARB species and 18S rRNA PCR/sequencing to determine FLA species present in the water samples before and after the ceramic pot intervention. Several FLA species including Acanthamoeba spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were isolated. The ceramic pot filter removed many of these microorganisms from the borehole water. However, design flaws could have been responsible for some FLA and ARB detected in the filtered water. FLA and their associated ARB are ubiquitous in borehole water, and some of these species might be potentially harmful and a health risk to vulnerable individuals. There is a need to do more investigations into the health risk of these organisms after point-of-use treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB); borehole water; ceramic filter; free-living amoeba (FLA); point-of-use intervention; rural communities amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB); borehole water; ceramic filter; free-living amoeba (FLA); point-of-use intervention; rural communities
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MDPI and ACS Style

van der Loo, C.; Bartie, C.; Barnard, T.G.; Potgieter, N. Detection of Free-Living Amoebae and Their Intracellular Bacteria in Borehole Water before and after a Ceramic Pot Filter Point-of-Use Intervention in Rural Communities in South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3912. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083912

AMA Style

van der Loo C, Bartie C, Barnard TG, Potgieter N. Detection of Free-Living Amoebae and Their Intracellular Bacteria in Borehole Water before and after a Ceramic Pot Filter Point-of-Use Intervention in Rural Communities in South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):3912. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083912

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Loo, Clarissa, Catheleen Bartie, Tobias G. Barnard, and Natasha Potgieter. 2021. "Detection of Free-Living Amoebae and Their Intracellular Bacteria in Borehole Water before and after a Ceramic Pot Filter Point-of-Use Intervention in Rural Communities in South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 3912. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083912

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