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Health Misinformation about Toxic-Site Harm: The Case for Independent-Party Testing to Confirm Safety

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 100 Malloy Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
2
Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, 3060 Jenkins Nanovic Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Viviani and Pedro M. Costa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083882
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Misinformation on Social Media)
Health misinformation can cause harm if regulators or private remediators falsely claim that a hazardous facility is safe. This misinformation especially threatens the health of children, minorities, and poor people, disproportionate numbers of whom live near toxic facilities. Yet, perhaps because of financial incentives, private remediators may use safety misinformation to justify reduced cleanup. Such incentives exist in nations like the United States, where most toxic-site testing/remediation is semi-privatized or voluntary, conducted by private parties, commercial redevelopers, who can increase profits by underestimating health harm, thus decreasing required testing/remediation. Our objective is to begin to determine whether or not interested parties misrepresent health harm (at hazardous facilities that they test/remediate/redevelop) when they use traditional and social media to claim that these sites are safe. Our hypothesis is that, contrary to the safety claims of the world’s largest commercial developer, Coldwell Banker Real Estate/Trammell Crow (CBRE/TCC), the authors’ screening assessment, especially its lab-certified, toxic-site, indoor-air tests, show violations of all three prominent government, cancer-safety benchmarks. If so, these facilities require additional testing/remediation, likely put site renters at risk, and may reveal problems with privatized hazardous cleanup. To our knowledge, we provide the first independent tests of privatized, toxic-site assessments before cancer reports occur. Our screening assessment of this hypothesis tests indoor air in rental units on a prominent former weapons-testing site (the US Naval Ordnance Testing Station, Pasadena, California (NOTSPA) that is subject to carcinogenic vapor intrusion by volatile organic compounds, VOCs), then compares test results to the redeveloper’s site-safety claims, made to government officials and citizens through traditional and social media. Although NOTSPA toxic soil-gas concentrations are up to nearly a million times above allowed levels, and indoor air was never tested until now, both the regulator and the remediator (CBRE/TCC) have repeatedly claimed on social media that “the site is safe at this time.” We used mainly Method TO-17 and two-week sampling with passive, sorbent tubes to assess indoor-air VOCs. Our results show that VOC levels at every location sampled—all in occupied site-rental units—violate all three government-mandated safety benchmarks: environmental screening levels (ESLs), No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs), and inhalation risks based on the Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR); some violations are two orders of magnitude above multiple safety benchmarks. These results support our hypothesis and suggest a need for independent assessment of privatized cleanups and media-enhanced safety claims about them. If our results can be replicated at other sites, then preventing health misinformation and toxic-facility safety threats may require new strategies, one of which we outline. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coldwell Banker Real Estate/Trammell Crow (CBRE/TCC); hazardous waste; Method TO-17; passive sampling; pollution; sorbent tube sampling; toxin; trichloroethylene (TCE); vapor intrusion; volatile organic compound Coldwell Banker Real Estate/Trammell Crow (CBRE/TCC); hazardous waste; Method TO-17; passive sampling; pollution; sorbent tube sampling; toxin; trichloroethylene (TCE); vapor intrusion; volatile organic compound
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Biondo, A.M. Health Misinformation about Toxic-Site Harm: The Case for Independent-Party Testing to Confirm Safety. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3882. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083882

AMA Style

Shrader-Frechette K, Biondo AM. Health Misinformation about Toxic-Site Harm: The Case for Independent-Party Testing to Confirm Safety. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):3882. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083882

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin; Biondo, Andrew M. 2021. "Health Misinformation about Toxic-Site Harm: The Case for Independent-Party Testing to Confirm Safety" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 8: 3882. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083882

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