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Review

Systematic Review of Human Poisoning and Toxic Exposures in Myanmar

1
Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Didcot OX11 0RQ, UK
2
National Poisons Information Service, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK
3
National Poisons Control Centre, Department of Medical Research, Yangon 11191, Myanmar
4
Global Public Health, Public Health England, London SE1 8UG, UK
5
Global Public Health, Public Health England, P.O. Box 638, Yangon, Myanmar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan Pedro Arrebola, Vicente Mustieles and Annalisa Pinsino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073576
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology and Environmental Epidemiology: Feature Papers)
The International Health Regulations (2005) promote national capacity in core institutions so that countries can better detect, respond to and recover from public health emergencies. In accordance with the ‘all hazards’ approach to public health risk, this systematic review examines poisoning and toxic exposures in Myanmar. A systematic literature search was undertaken to find articles pertaining to poisoning in Myanmar published between 1998 and 2020. A number of poisoning risks are identified in this review, including snakebites, heavy metals, drugs of abuse, agrochemicals and traditional medicine. Patterns of poisoning presented in the literature diverge from poisoning priorities reported in other lower-middle income countries in the region. The experience of professionals working in a Yangon-based poison treatment unit also indicate that frequently observed poisoning as a result of pharmaceuticals, methanol, and petroleum products was absent from the literature. Other notable gaps in the available research include assessments of the public health burden of poisoning through self-harm, household exposures to chemicals, paediatric risk and women’s occupational risk of poisoning. There is a limited amount of research available on poisoning outcomes and routes of exposure in Myanmar. Further investigation and research are warranted to provide a more complete assessment of poisoning risk and incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: poisoning; toxic; Myanmar poisoning; toxic; Myanmar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cook, M.A.; Jagpal, P.S.; Hnin Pwint, K.; San, L.L.; Kyaw Thein, S.S.; Pyone, T.; Thit, W.M.M.; Bradberry, S.M.; Collins, S. Systematic Review of Human Poisoning and Toxic Exposures in Myanmar. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3576. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073576

AMA Style

Cook MA, Jagpal PS, Hnin Pwint K, San LL, Kyaw Thein SS, Pyone T, Thit WMM, Bradberry SM, Collins S. Systematic Review of Human Poisoning and Toxic Exposures in Myanmar. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3576. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073576

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cook, Meghan A., Pardeep S. Jagpal, Khin Hnin Pwint, Lai L. San, Saint S. Kyaw Thein, Thidar Pyone, Win M.M. Thit, Sally M. Bradberry, and Samuel Collins. 2021. "Systematic Review of Human Poisoning and Toxic Exposures in Myanmar" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3576. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073576

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