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Article

Influence of ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism on Cardiometabolic Risk, Maximal Fat Oxidation, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Diet and Physical Activity in Young Adults

1
MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11519 Puerto Real, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Cádiz (INiBICA), Hospital Uniersitario Puerta del Mar, Universidad de Cádiz, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
3
GALENO Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11519 Puerto Real, Spain
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Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Santiago 8380453, Chile
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Faculty of Health Sciences, International University of La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073443
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximal Fat Oxidation: Determinant Factors and Metabolic Flexibility)
There is controversy about the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and health. Seventy-four healthy adults (n = 28 women; 22.5 ± 4.2 years) participated in this cross-sectional study aimed at determining the influence of ACE I/D polymorphism, ascertained by polymerase chain reaction, on cardiometabolic risk (i.e., waist circumference, body fat, blood pressure (BP), glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory markers), maximal fat oxidation (MFO), cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake), physical activity and diet. Our results showed differences by ACE I/D polymorphism in systolic BP (DD: 116.4 ± 11.8 mmHg; ID: 116.7 ± 6.3 mmHg; II: 109.4 ± 12.3 mmHg, p = 0.035) and body fat (DD: 27.3 ± 10.8%; ID: 22.6 ± 9.7%; II: 19.3 ± 7.1%, p = 0.030). Interestingly, a genotype*sex interaction in relativized MFO by lean mass (p = 0.048) was found. The DD polymorphism had higher MFO values than ID/II polymorphisms in men (8.4 ± 3.0 vs. 6.5 ± 2.9 mg/kg/min), while the ID/II polymorphisms showed higher R-MFO values than DD polymorphism in women (6.6 ± 2.3 vs. 7.6 ± 2.6 mg/kg/min). In conclusion, ACE I/D polymorphism is apparently associated with adiposity and BP, where a protective effect can be attributed to the II genotype, but not with cardiorespiratory fitness, diet and physical activity. Moreover, our study highlighted that there is a sexual dimorphism in the influence of ACE I/D gene polymorphism on MFO. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic association studies; heart diseases; lipid metabolism; healthy lifestyle; angiotensin-converting enzyme; obesity genetic association studies; heart diseases; lipid metabolism; healthy lifestyle; angiotensin-converting enzyme; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montes-de-Oca-García, A.; Perez-Bey, A.; Velázquez-Díaz, D.; Corral-Pérez, J.; Opazo-Díaz, E.; Rebollo-Ramos, M.; Gómez-Gallego, F.; Cuenca-García, M.; Casals, C.; Ponce-González, J.G. Influence of ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism on Cardiometabolic Risk, Maximal Fat Oxidation, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Diet and Physical Activity in Young Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073443

AMA Style

Montes-de-Oca-García A, Perez-Bey A, Velázquez-Díaz D, Corral-Pérez J, Opazo-Díaz E, Rebollo-Ramos M, Gómez-Gallego F, Cuenca-García M, Casals C, Ponce-González JG. Influence of ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism on Cardiometabolic Risk, Maximal Fat Oxidation, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Diet and Physical Activity in Young Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montes-de-Oca-García, Adrián, Alejandro Perez-Bey, Daniel Velázquez-Díaz, Juan Corral-Pérez, Edgardo Opazo-Díaz, María Rebollo-Ramos, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Cristina Casals, and Jesús G. Ponce-González. 2021. "Influence of ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism on Cardiometabolic Risk, Maximal Fat Oxidation, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Diet and Physical Activity in Young Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073443

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