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Article

Measuring Time-Varying Effective Reproduction Numbers for COVID-19 and Their Relationship with Movement Control Order in Malaysia

1
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
2
School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang 11800, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Sungai Buloh Campus, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, Selangor 47000, Malaysia
4
Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rodney P. Jones
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063273
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) in Malaysia, the government imposed a nationwide movement control order (MCO) from 18 March 2020 to 3 May 2020. It was enforced in four phases (i.e., MCO 1, MCO 2, MCO 3 and MCO 4). In this paper, we propose an initiative to assess the impact of MCO by using time-varying reproduction number (Rt). We used data from the Johns Hopkins University Centre for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus repository. Day 1 was taken from the first assumed local transmission of COVID-19. We estimated Rt by using the EpiEstim package and plotted the epidemic curve and Rt. Then, we extracted the mean Rt at day 1, day 5 and day 10 for all MCO phases and compared the differences. The Rt values peaked around day 43, which was shortly before the start of MCO 1. The means for Rt at day 1, day 5, and day 10 for all MCOs ranged between 0.665 and 1.147. The average Rt gradually decreased in MCO 1 and MCO 2. Although spikes in the number of confirmed cases were observed when restrictions were gradually relaxed in the later MCO phases, the situation remained under control with Rt values being stabilised to below unity level (Rt value less than one). View Full-Text
Keywords: reproduction number; COVID-19; movement control order; epidemic curve reproduction number; COVID-19; movement control order; epidemic curve
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MDPI and ACS Style

Musa, K.I.; Arifin, W.N.; Mohd, M.H.; Jamiluddin, M.S.; Ahmad, N.A.; Chen, X.W.; Hanis, T.M.; Bulgiba, A. Measuring Time-Varying Effective Reproduction Numbers for COVID-19 and Their Relationship with Movement Control Order in Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063273

AMA Style

Musa KI, Arifin WN, Mohd MH, Jamiluddin MS, Ahmad NA, Chen XW, Hanis TM, Bulgiba A. Measuring Time-Varying Effective Reproduction Numbers for COVID-19 and Their Relationship with Movement Control Order in Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):3273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Musa, Kamarul Imran, Wan Nor Arifin, Mohd Hafiz Mohd, Mohammad Subhi Jamiluddin, Noor Atinah Ahmad, Xin Wee Chen, Tengku Muhammad Hanis, and Awang Bulgiba. 2021. "Measuring Time-Varying Effective Reproduction Numbers for COVID-19 and Their Relationship with Movement Control Order in Malaysia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 3273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063273

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