Next Article in Journal
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Significance and Considerations within the Regulatory Framework of the USA
Next Article in Special Issue
The Relevance of Insomnia in the Diagnosis of Perinatal Depression: Validation of the Italian Version of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Pilot Testing of a Smartphone-Based Self-Care Program for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Previous Article in Special Issue
Factor Structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Postpartum Slovak Women
Article

Pandemic Stress and Its Correlates among Pregnant Women during the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Poland

1
Institute of Psychology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Grażyńskiego Street 53, 40-126 Katowice, Poland
2
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Agostini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111140
Received: 12 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening and Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety)
Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created numerous stressful conditions, especially for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress consists of two dimensions: stress associated with feeling unprepared for birth due to the pandemic (Preparedness Stress), and stress related to fears of perinatal COVID-19 infection (Perinatal Infection Stress). The purpose of our study was to elucidate the association between various factors—sociodemographic, obstetric, pandemic-related, and situational—and pandemic stress in its two dimensions during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Polish pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a total of 1119 pregnant women recruited during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland (between November 2020 and January 2021). Participants were recruited via social media to complete an online study questionnaire that included sociodemographic, obstetric, situational, and COVID-19 pandemic factors, as well as the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS). Results: Nearly 38.5% of participants reported high Preparedness Stress; 26% reported high Perinatal Infection Stress. Multivariate analyses indicated that lack of COVID-19 diagnosis, higher compliance with safety rules and restrictions, and limited access to outdoor space were independently associated with moderate to severe levels of Infection Stress. Current emotional or psychiatric problems, nulliparity, limited access to outdoor space, and alterations to obstetric visits were independently associated with moderate to severe Preparedness Stress. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that particular attention should be focused on the groups of pregnant women who are most vulnerable to pandemic-related stress and therefore may be more prone to adverse outcomes associated with prenatal stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; COVID-19; pandemic stress; correlates of stress; infection; preparedness pregnancy; COVID-19; pandemic stress; correlates of stress; infection; preparedness
MDPI and ACS Style

Ilska, M.; Kołodziej-Zaleska, A.; Brandt-Salmeri, A.; Preis, H.; Lobel, M. Pandemic Stress and Its Correlates among Pregnant Women during the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11140. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111140

AMA Style

Ilska M, Kołodziej-Zaleska A, Brandt-Salmeri A, Preis H, Lobel M. Pandemic Stress and Its Correlates among Pregnant Women during the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11140. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilska, Michalina, Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska, Anna Brandt-Salmeri, Heidi Preis, and Marci Lobel. 2021. "Pandemic Stress and Its Correlates among Pregnant Women during the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Poland" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11140. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111140

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop