The aim of this study was to determine the values of DMFT/DMFS and dft/dfs in the examined groups of children and the assessment of the mothers of the examined groups of children related to the oral health of their children. The research included children from the SOS Children’s Village in Croatia as well as children from biological families from rural and urban areas. The children were examined by the visual–tactile method according to the standardized World Health Organization criteria. dft/DMFT and dfs/DMFS indices were calculated. An analysis of completed questionnaires was made. The children from the SOS Children’s Village demonstrated the lowest mean values of the dft/dfs (2.42/3.31) and DMFT/DMFS (1.61/2.23) indices compared to children from rural and urban areas. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed a significant difference (p
= 0.01) in SiC index values between the examined children. In the groups of children from the SOS Children’s Village and from the rural area compared to the children from the urban area, oral hygiene was singled out as the most important factor in the analysis of the main components. An equally significant factor for all the respondents is the assessment of oral health and eating habits. The least significant factor for the group of children from the SOS Children’s Village is socio-economic status, which is the most significant for the children from the urban area. The children from the SOS Children’s village have the lowest dft/DMFT, dfs/DMFS, and SiC indices. The most important factor influencing oral health in the group of children from the SOS Children’s Village that stands out is oral hygiene, and the least important is the socio-economic status. The assessment of oral health by the SOS mothers does not differ from the assessment of biological mothers of children from rural and urban areas.
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