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Review

The Present State of Lithium for the Prevention of Dementia Related to Alzheimer’s Dementia in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: A Critical Review

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Idaigaoka 1-1, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan
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Academic Editors: Maria Orquídia Teixeira Neves and José Manuel Marques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157756
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fascinating World of Lithium)
Despite the unavailability of essential anti-dementia drugs, lithium may inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and decrease beta-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau. In this review, we hypothesized that trace to standard levels of lithium (i.e., corresponding to the therapeutic levels for bipolar disorder) may be effective for dementia prevention. Excluding three insufficient level studies, we obtained two and one excellent clinical studies on standard and trace lithium levels, respectively, all of which supported the effects of lithium for dementia prevention. In addition, we identified good clinical and epidemiological studies (four each) on standard lithium levels, of which six studies supported the effects of lithium. Moreover, of three good epidemiological studies on trace lithium levels, two supported the aforementioned effects of lithium. The number of studies were substantially small, particularly those on trace lithium levels. Moreover, studies on standard lithium levels were insufficient to establish the efficacy of lithium for dementia prevention. This necessitates accumulating good or excellent clinical evidence for the effects of trace to standard lithium levels on dementia prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: review; lithium; standard levels; trace levels; dementia; dementia prevention review; lithium; standard levels; trace levels; dementia; dementia prevention
MDPI and ACS Style

Ishii, N.; Terao, T.; Hirakawa, H. The Present State of Lithium for the Prevention of Dementia Related to Alzheimer’s Dementia in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: A Critical Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7756. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157756

AMA Style

Ishii N, Terao T, Hirakawa H. The Present State of Lithium for the Prevention of Dementia Related to Alzheimer’s Dementia in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: A Critical Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7756. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157756

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ishii, Nobuyoshi, Takeshi Terao, and Hirofumi Hirakawa. 2021. "The Present State of Lithium for the Prevention of Dementia Related to Alzheimer’s Dementia in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: A Critical Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7756. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157756

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