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Article

The Bidirectional Relationship between Body Weight and Depression across Gender: A Simultaneous Equation Approach

School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Renmin University of China, No. 59 Zhongguancun Ave., Beijing 100872, China
Academic Editor: Jimmy T. Efird
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147673
Received: 10 July 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
Purpose: This study investigates the bidirectional relationship between body weight and depression for both males and females in the U.S. Methods: Data are drawn from the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and a simultaneous ordered probability system is estimated with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to accommodate the two-way causality between depression and body weight categories. The variable of depression is measured by individuals’ past depressive records and current mental health status. Results: Depression and body weight are found to affect each other positively for both males and females on average. In a randomized population, the results of average treatment effects suggest significant body weight differences between depressed and non-depressed individuals. Age and other sociodemographic factors affect body weight differently between genders and between the people with depression and those without. Conclusion: The positive bidirectional relationship between body weight and depression is found. The effect of depression on body weight is significant among both males and females in a randomized population, and females who experience depression are most likely to be obese and less likely to have normal weight compared to females without depression. The risks of overweight and obesity are high among people who are less educated or unable, who have poor health statuses, and who had high blood pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: body weight; obesity; depression; simultaneous equation system; gender difference body weight; obesity; depression; simultaneous equation system; gender difference
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J. The Bidirectional Relationship between Body Weight and Depression across Gender: A Simultaneous Equation Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7673. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147673

AMA Style

Zhang J. The Bidirectional Relationship between Body Weight and Depression across Gender: A Simultaneous Equation Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7673. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147673

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jun. 2021. "The Bidirectional Relationship between Body Weight and Depression across Gender: A Simultaneous Equation Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7673. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147673

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