Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Soil Contamination with Potentially Toxic Elements and Soil Ecotoxicity of Botanical Garden in Brno, Czech Republic: Are Urban Botanical Gardens More Polluted Than Urban Parks?
Previous Article in Journal
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Problematic Internet Use in a Population of Spanish University Students
Previous Article in Special Issue
‘I Was Smoking a Lot More during Lockdown Because I Can’: A Qualitative Study of How UK Smokers Responded to the Covid-19 Lockdown
Article

Perceived Susceptibility to and Seriousness of COVID-19: Associations of Risk Perceptions with Changes in Smoking Behavior

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Medical School Office Building, X316, 1265 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Pistelli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147621
Received: 19 June 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 17 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking, Vaping and COVID-19)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have documented increased and decreased cigarette smoking among adults. Individual differences in the perceived susceptibility and seriousness of the virus, for people who smoke in general and for oneself personally, may relate to changes in smoking. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we examined associations with self-reported increasing and decreasing smoking a lot during the COVID-19 stay-at-home period. Adults in 30 large U.S. cities who smoked cigarettes daily completed an online survey between 14 July and 30 November 2020. The analytic sample (N = 2768) was 54.0% male and 68.3% white with 23.7% reporting increasing and 11.3% decreasing smoking (6% reported both). Younger age, a diagnosis of COVID-19, and greater pandemic-related stress were associated with greater odds of both increased and decreased smoking. Increased smoking also was associated with heavier nicotine dependence, greater desire to quit, and greater perceived susceptibility and lower perceived seriousness of COVID-19 for people who smoke, while pandemic-related job-loss, lower nicotine dependence, and greater self-efficacy were associated with decreased smoking. Among respondents who had not contracted COVID-19 (n = 2418), correlates were similar with the addition of greater perceived personal susceptibility to COVID-19 associated with both increased and decreased smoking, while greater perceived personal seriousness of COVID-19 was associated with increased smoking. Findings for risk perceptions were largely in directions that contradict the HBM. Circumstances surrounding behavior change during the pandemic are complex and may be especially complex for nicotine addiction. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; tobacco; cigarettes; COVID-19; Health Belief Model smoking; tobacco; cigarettes; COVID-19; Health Belief Model
MDPI and ACS Style

Vogel, E.A.; Henriksen, L.; Schleicher, N.C.; Prochaska, J.J. Perceived Susceptibility to and Seriousness of COVID-19: Associations of Risk Perceptions with Changes in Smoking Behavior. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147621

AMA Style

Vogel EA, Henriksen L, Schleicher NC, Prochaska JJ. Perceived Susceptibility to and Seriousness of COVID-19: Associations of Risk Perceptions with Changes in Smoking Behavior. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147621

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vogel, Erin A., Lisa Henriksen, Nina C. Schleicher, and Judith J. Prochaska 2021. "Perceived Susceptibility to and Seriousness of COVID-19: Associations of Risk Perceptions with Changes in Smoking Behavior" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147621

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop