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Article

Assessing Biocompatibility of Face Mask Materials during COVID-19 Pandemic by a Rapid Multi-Assays Strategy

1
Technopole “Mario Veronesi”, via 29 Maggio, 6, 41037 Mirandola, Italy
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Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vivarelli, 10, Building 26, 41124 Modena, Italy
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Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via del Pozzo, 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
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Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via del Pozzo, 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editor: Farooq Sher
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105387
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, scientific authorities strongly suggested the use of face masks (FMs). FM materials (FMMs) have to satisfy the medical device biocompatibility requirements as indicated in the technical standard EN ISO 10993-1:2018. The biologic evaluation must be confirmed by in vivo tests to verify cytotoxicity, sensitisation, and skin irritation. Some of these tests require an extensive period of time for their execution, which is incompatible with an emergency situation. In this study, we propose to verify the safety of FMMs combining the assessment of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) with quantification of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as predictive markers of skin sensitisation or irritation based on human primary fibroblasts. Two hundred and forty-two FMMs were collected and classified according to spectrometer IR in polypropylene, paper, cotton, polyester, polyethylene terephthalate, 3-dimensional printing, and viscose. Of all FMMs tested, 50.8% passed all the assays, 48% failed at least one, and only 1.2% failed all. By a low cost, rapid and highly sensitive multi assays strategy tested on human skin fibroblasts against a large variety of FMMs, we propose a strategy to promptly evaluate biocompatibility in wearable materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; cytotoxicity; cytokines; inflammation; materials biocompatibility; cytotoxicity; cytokines; inflammation; materials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petrachi, T.; Ganzerli, F.; Cuoghi, A.; Ferrari, A.; Resca, E.; Bergamini, V.; Accorsi, L.; Burini, F.; Pasini, D.; Arnaud, G.F.; Piccini, M.; Aldrovandi, L.; Mari, G.; Tomasi, A.; Rovati, L.; Dominici, M.; Veronesi, E. Assessing Biocompatibility of Face Mask Materials during COVID-19 Pandemic by a Rapid Multi-Assays Strategy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105387

AMA Style

Petrachi T, Ganzerli F, Cuoghi A, Ferrari A, Resca E, Bergamini V, Accorsi L, Burini F, Pasini D, Arnaud GF, Piccini M, Aldrovandi L, Mari G, Tomasi A, Rovati L, Dominici M, Veronesi E. Assessing Biocompatibility of Face Mask Materials during COVID-19 Pandemic by a Rapid Multi-Assays Strategy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105387

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petrachi, Tiziana, Francesco Ganzerli, Aurora Cuoghi, Alberto Ferrari, Elisa Resca, Valentina Bergamini, Luca Accorsi, Francesco Burini, Davide Pasini, Gaelle Françoise Arnaud, Mattia Piccini, Laura Aldrovandi, Giorgio Mari, Aldo Tomasi, Luigi Rovati, Massimo Dominici, and Elena Veronesi. 2021. "Assessing Biocompatibility of Face Mask Materials during COVID-19 Pandemic by a Rapid Multi-Assays Strategy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105387

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