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Open AccessArticle

Energy Drink Consumption and Substance Use among Middle and High School Students

1
School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1G 5Z3, Canada
2
Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
3
Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
4
Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada
5
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093110
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 26 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
This study examined the association between energy drink consumption and substance use among adolescents and tested whether sex and/or grade level (i.e., middle vs. high school) moderate the association. Data were derived from the 2017 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a representative survey of students in 7th to 12th grade. Analyses included 10,662 students who self-reported information on energy drink consumption and substance use. Poisson regression models were used with adjustments for important covariates. Energy drink consumption was associated with tobacco cigarette smoking (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 3.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.22–4.35), cannabis use (IRR: 2.90; 95% CI: 2.53–3.32), binge drinking (IRR: 2.46; 95% CI: 2.05–2.96), opioid use (IRR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.85–2.68), and alcohol use (IRR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.26–1.36). The associations of energy drink consumption with tobacco cigarette smoking, cannabis use, and alcohol consumption were modified by grade level (two-way interaction terms p < 0.05). The association between energy drink consumption and substance use was generally much stronger among middle school students compared with high school students. The findings suggest that middle school students may be more vulnerable to the negative effects of energy drinks in relation with substance use. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy drinks; drug use; sex; middle school; high school; adolescents energy drinks; drug use; sex; middle school; high school; adolescents
MDPI and ACS Style

Sampasa-Kanyinga, H.; Masengo, L.; Hamilton, H.A.; Chaput, J.-P. Energy Drink Consumption and Substance Use among Middle and High School Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3110.

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