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Article

Parenting Styles, Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil

1
Department of Psychology—Social Psychology Area, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda de los Alfares 44, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
2
Department of Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Instituto de Educação, Alameda da Universidade, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-013 Lisboa, Portugal
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Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Education, Faculdade São Braz, Curitiba, Parana, 82520-590, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072370
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
The present study analyzes the impact of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem and internalization of social values in three countries, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. The sample of the study was comprised of 2091 adolescents from Spain (n = 793), Portugal (n = 675), and Brazil (n = 623) from 12–18 years old (52.1% females). The four types of parenting styles, authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian and neglectful, were measured through the warmth and strictness dimensions of the Scale of Parental Socialization ESPA29. The two criteria variables were captured with the five dimensions of the AF5, Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire, and with self-transcendence and conservation Schwartz values. Results confirm emergent research in parenting socialization: the use of parental warmth is evidenced as key for adolescent self-esteem and internalization of social values in the three countries analyzed. Indulgent and authoritative parenting (both characterized by parental warmth) are associated with the highest value internalization in the three countries. Furthermore, indulgent parenting (use of warmth) is associated with the highest adolescent self-esteem, overcoming authoritative parenting (use of warmth and strictness). The influence of parenting over adolescent self-esteem and values internalization is maintained independent of the differences in self-esteem and value priorities observed in the cultural context, the sex and age of the participants. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting; parental warmth; parental strictness; self-esteem; social values; culture parenting; parental warmth; parental strictness; self-esteem; social values; culture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez, I.; Garcia, F.; Veiga, F.; Garcia, O.F.; Rodrigues, Y.; Serra, E. Parenting Styles, Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072370

AMA Style

Martinez I, Garcia F, Veiga F, Garcia OF, Rodrigues Y, Serra E. Parenting Styles, Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072370

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez, Isabel, Fernando Garcia, Feliciano Veiga, Oscar F. Garcia, Yara Rodrigues, and Emilia Serra. 2020. "Parenting Styles, Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072370

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