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Open AccessArticle

Alcohol Outlet Density and Deprivation in Six Towns in Bergrivier Municipality before and after Legislative Restrictions

1
School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
2
Human Sciences Research Council, Port Elizabeth 6045, South Africa
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030697
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Policy and Public Health)
Introduction. In 2016, after the Western Cape Liquor Act was enacted, alcohol outlets were mapped in the six towns from a previous 2008 study to determine: (1) alcohol outlet density; (2) the association between deprivation and alcohol outlet density; (3) geospatial trends of alcohol outlet densities; and (4) the impact of alcohol legislation. Methods. Latitude and longitude coordinates were collected of legal and illegal alcohol outlets, and alcohol outlet density was calculated for legal, illegal and total alcohol outlets by km2 and per 1000 persons. To determine the impact of legislation, t-tests and hot spot analyses were calculated for both 2008 and 2016 studies. Spearman coefficients estimated the relationship between alcohol outlet density and deprivation. Results. Although not statistically significant, the number of alcohol outlets and the density per 1000 population declined by about 12% and 34%, respectively. Illegal outlets were still more likely to be located in more deprived areas, and legal outlets in less deprived areas; and a reduction or addition of a few outlets can change a town’s hot spot status. Conclusions. Further studies with larger sample sizes might help to clarify the impacts of the Liquor Act, and the more recent 2017 Alcohol-Related Harms Reduction Policy on alcohol outlet density in the province. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol outlet density; fetal alcohol syndrome; hot spot analysis; liquor act enforcement alcohol outlet density; fetal alcohol syndrome; hot spot analysis; liquor act enforcement
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Bowers, Y.; Davids, A.; London, L. Alcohol Outlet Density and Deprivation in Six Towns in Bergrivier Municipality before and after Legislative Restrictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 697.

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