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Identifying the Factors That Affect Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Menopausal Women: A Nationwide Study in Korea

Department of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228505
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
Depressive symptoms do not persistently negatively affect functioning throughout the life span, but they may affect quality of life (QOL), especially in middle-aged women. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors associated with depressive symptoms in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. This descriptive study was a secondary analysis of the data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that was conducted in 2016. Of the 8150 participants, the analysis included 644 premenopausal women and 459 postmenopausal women aged 40–60 years. The factors associated with depressive symptoms in the participants were examined using multivariate regression analysis. It was found that the depressive symptoms of postmenopausal middle-aged women were greater than those of premenopausal women. While a high perceived stress status and high pain-related discomfort were factors that influenced depressive symptoms among the premenopausal group, a high level of discomfort due to anxiety/depression, a poor perceived health status, shortened weekend sleep time, and smoking were associated with depressive symptoms in the postmenopausal group. Thus, it is necessary to develop an intervention to decrease depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women that considers their QOL, which is associated with depression, their subjective health status, sleep time, and smoking cessation. View Full-Text
Keywords: middle-aged; postmenopausal; depressive symptom; women middle-aged; postmenopausal; depressive symptom; women
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K. Identifying the Factors That Affect Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Menopausal Women: A Nationwide Study in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228505

AMA Style

Kim K. Identifying the Factors That Affect Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Menopausal Women: A Nationwide Study in Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Kisook. 2020. "Identifying the Factors That Affect Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Menopausal Women: A Nationwide Study in Korea" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228505

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