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Article

The Unholy Trinity: Childhood Trauma, Adulthood Anxiety, and Long-Term Pain

1
Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University Olomouc, Univerzitni 22, 77111 Olomouc, Czech Republic
2
Psychiatric-Psychotherapeutic Outpatient Clinic, Heydukova 27, 81108 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Department of Social Work, St. Elizabeth College of Health and Social Work, Palackeho 1, 81102 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of Psychiatry, Slovak Medical University, Faculty of Medicine, Limbova 12, 833 03 Bratislava, Slovakia
5
Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, P. J. Safarik University, Trieda SNP 1, 04011 Kosice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020414
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing)
Background: Childhood trauma is considered to be a risk factor for developing anxiety as well as chronic pain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between childhood trauma and reporting anxiety and long-term pain conditions in the general and clinical populations. Methods: Respondents from a representative sample in the Czech Republic (n = 1800, mean age: 46.6 years, 48.7% male) and patients with a clinically diagnosed anxiety or adjustment disorder (n = 67, mean age: 40.5 years, 18.0% male) were asked to report anxiety, various chronic and pain-related conditions, and childhood trauma (The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) in a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted in 2016 and 2017. Results: Reporting emotional abuse (Odds ratio OR from 2.14 to 14.71), emotional neglect (OR from 2.42 to 10.99), or physical neglect (OR from 2.24 to 3.30) was associated with reporting anxiety and long-term pain both in the general and clinical populations and reporting physical abuse moreover with reporting anxiety or adjustment disorder with concurrent long-term pain (OR from 4.04 to 6.39). Conclusion: This study highlights the relevance of childhood trauma as a possible factor contributing to anxiety with concurrent pain conditions in adulthood in both the general and clinical populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood trauma; adulthood anxiety; chronic pain condition; anxiety disorder; community sample; clinical sample childhood trauma; adulthood anxiety; chronic pain condition; anxiety disorder; community sample; clinical sample
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kascakova, N.; Furstova, J.; Hasto, J.; Madarasova Geckova, A.; Tavel, P. The Unholy Trinity: Childhood Trauma, Adulthood Anxiety, and Long-Term Pain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020414

AMA Style

Kascakova N, Furstova J, Hasto J, Madarasova Geckova A, Tavel P. The Unholy Trinity: Childhood Trauma, Adulthood Anxiety, and Long-Term Pain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2):414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kascakova, Natalia, Jana Furstova, Jozef Hasto, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, and Peter Tavel. 2020. "The Unholy Trinity: Childhood Trauma, Adulthood Anxiety, and Long-Term Pain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 2: 414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020414

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