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Open AccessArticle

Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Presence of Arterial Stiffness in the Prepubescent Population

1
Internal Medicine Department, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica de Malaga (IBIMA), Regional University Hospital of Malaga, 29010 Malaga, Spain
2
Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica de Malaga (IBIMA), University Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, 29010 Malaga, Spain
3
Clinical Analysis Department, Regional University Hospital of Malaga, 29010 Malaga, Spain
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Medicine and Dermatology Department, University of Malaga, 29010 Malaga, Spain
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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196995
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 19 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Children's Health)
Aim: Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, one of the world’s leading causes of death, first manifests itself at an early age. The identification of children who may have increased cardiovascular risk in the future could be an important prevention strategy. Our aim was to assess the clinical, analytical, and dietary variables associated with arterial stiffness (AS), measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in a prepubescent population with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study in prepubescent subjects with obesity who had ≤1 metabolic syndrome criteria (abdominal perimeter and blood pressure ≥90th percentile, triglycerides >150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL, fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL) was conducted. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet, blood pressure, BMI, waist/height ratio (WHtR), glycemic status, lipid profile, and cfPWV were analyzed. 75 MHO children (boys: 43; girls: 32; p = 0.20) (age = 10.05 ± 1.29 years; BMI = 25.29 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were included. Results: We found a positive correlation between cfPWV and weight (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001), BMI (r = 0.44; p < 0.0001), WHtR (r = 0.26; p = 0.02), fasting insulin levels (r = 0.28; p = 0.02), and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index) (r = 0.25; p = 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis identified BMI and HOMA-IR as independent parameters associated with cfPWV. Conclusions: Prepubescent children with obesity who were shown to be metabolically healthy presented with arterial stiffness, which is closely related to BMI and the state of insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterial stiffness; carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; prepubescent population; Mediterranean diet; insulin resistance; metabolically healthy obesity arterial stiffness; carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; prepubescent population; Mediterranean diet; insulin resistance; metabolically healthy obesity
MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Moreno, M.I.; Vilches-Perez, A.; Gallardo-Escribano, C.; Vargas-Candela, A.; Lopez-Carmona, M.D.; Pérez-Belmonte, L.M.; Ruiz-Moreno, A.; Gomez-Huelgas, R.; Bernal-Lopez, M.R. Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Presence of Arterial Stiffness in the Prepubescent Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6995.

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