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Open AccessArticle

How Older People Experience the Age-Friendliness of Their City: Development of the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire

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Chair of Urban Ageing, Faculty of Social Work & Education, The Hague University of Applied Sciences, Johanna Westerdijkplein 75, 2521 EN Den Haag, The Netherlands
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Faculty of Health, Nutrition & Sport, The Hague University of Applied Sciences, Johanna Westerdijkplein 75, 2521 EN Den Haag, The Netherlands
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AFEdemy—Academy on age-friendly environments in Europe, Buurtje 2, 2802 BE Gouda, The Netherlands
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Hulsebosch Advies, Lissenvaart 43, 2724 SJ Zoetermeer, The Netherlands
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Institute of Spatial Management, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, ul. Grunwaldzka 55, 50-357 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186867
Received: 5 September 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
The World Health Organization engages cities and communities all over the world in becoming age-friendly. There is a need for assessing the age-friendliness of cities and communities by means of a transparently constructed and validated tool which measures the construct as a whole. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire measuring age-friendliness, providing full transparency and reproducibility. The development and validation of the Age Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ) followed the criteria of the COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). Four phases were followed: (1) development of the conceptual model, themes and items; (2) initial (qualitative) validation; (3) psychometric validation, and (4) translating the instrument using the forward-backward translation method. This rigorous process of development and validation resulted in a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive 23-item questionnaire. This questionnaire can be used to measure older people’s experiences regarding the eight domains of the WHO Age-Friendly Cities model, and an additional financial domain. The AFCCQ allows practitioners and researchers to capture the age-friendliness of a city or community in a numerical fashion, which helps monitor the age-friendliness and the potential impact of policies or social programmes. The AFCCQ was created in Dutch and translated into British-English. View Full-Text
Keywords: survey; questionnaire; validation; age-friendly; age-friendly cities; older people; age-friendliness; AFCCQ survey; questionnaire; validation; age-friendly; age-friendly cities; older people; age-friendliness; AFCCQ
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Dikken, J.; van den Hoven, R.F.; van Staalduinen, W.H.; Hulsebosch-Janssen, L.M.; van Hoof, J. How Older People Experience the Age-Friendliness of Their City: Development of the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6867.

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