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Open AccessArticle

Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil of the Ger District in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

1
Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan
2
Department of Environment and Forest Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
3
Division of Global Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
4
Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
5
Department of Geography, School of Art and Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134668
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Public Health)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate human health and potential ecological risk assessment in the ger district of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. To perform these risk assessments, soil samples were collected based on reference studies that investigated heavy element distribution in soil samples near the ger area in Ulaanbaatar city. In total, 42 soil samples were collected and 26 heavy metals were identified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The measurement results were compared with the reference data in order to validate the soil contamination level. Although there was a large difference between the measurement results of the present and reference data, the general tendency was similar. Soil contamination was assessed by pollution indexes such as geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor. Mo and As were the most enriched elements compared with the other elements. The carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to children exceeded the permissible limits, and for adults, only 12 out of 42 sampling points exceeded the permissible limit of noncarcinogenic effects. According to the results of the ecological risk assessment, Zn and Pb showed from moderate to considerable contamination indexes and high toxicity values for ecological risk of a single element. The Cr and As ranged as very high ecological risk than that of the other measured heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: health risk assessment; ecological risk assessment; ger district; heavy metals; soil pollution health risk assessment; ecological risk assessment; ger district; heavy metals; soil pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Battsengel, E.; Murayama, T.; Fukushi, K.; Nishikizawa, S.; Chonokhuu, S.; Ochir, A.; Tsetsgee, S.; Davaasuren, D. Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil of the Ger District in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4668. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134668

AMA Style

Battsengel E, Murayama T, Fukushi K, Nishikizawa S, Chonokhuu S, Ochir A, Tsetsgee S, Davaasuren D. Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil of the Ger District in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13):4668. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134668

Chicago/Turabian Style

Battsengel, Enkhchimeg; Murayama, Takehiko; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nishikizawa, Shigeo; Chonokhuu, Sonomdagva; Ochir, Altansukh; Tsetsgee, Solongo; Davaasuren, Davaadorj. 2020. "Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil of the Ger District in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 13: 4668. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134668

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