Next Article in Journal
Interpersonal Violence and Psychotic-Like Experiences: The Mediation of Ideas of Reference, Childhood Memories, and Dissociation
Next Article in Special Issue
Long-Term Outcomes of Service Women Injured on Combat Deployment
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Decolonization: An Indigenous Microcosm Perspective of Planetary Health
Previous Article in Special Issue
Predicting Health-Related Quality of Life in Trauma-Exposed Male Veterans in Late Midlife: A 20 Year Longitudinal Study
Article

Examining the Association between Trauma Exposure and Work-Related Outcomes in Women Veterans

1
National Center for PTSD Women’s Health Sciences Division, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA
2
Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124585
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 25 June 2020
Women veterans have high rates of trauma exposure, including military sexual trauma (MST), which are associated with numerous health and psychosocial consequences. However, associations between trauma history and work-related outcomes are less well-characterized. We examined whether military-related and non-military trauma types were associated with work-related outcomes and whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms mediated these associations. A total of 369 women veterans completed up to two mailed surveys, 12 months apart, assessing trauma exposure, depression and PTSD symptoms, occupational functioning, and employment status (unemployed, out of the workforce, employed). Participants reported high rates of trauma exposure. Nearly half (47.5%) were out of the workforce. Military-related trauma, military sexual assault, and adult sexual assault were associated with worse occupational functioning. Only PTSD symptoms mediated associations between trauma types and occupational functioning. No trauma types were significantly directly associated with employment status; however, PTSD and depression symptoms mediated associations between trauma types and being out of the workforce. Findings can inform screening for military trauma exposures, mental health, and work-related needs among women veterans. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic stress; military trauma; PTSD; depression; unemployment; occupational health; veterans’ health traumatic stress; military trauma; PTSD; depression; unemployment; occupational health; veterans’ health
MDPI and ACS Style

Sienkiewicz, M.E.; Amalathas, A.; Iverson, K.M.; Smith, B.N.; Mitchell, K.S. Examining the Association between Trauma Exposure and Work-Related Outcomes in Women Veterans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124585

AMA Style

Sienkiewicz ME, Amalathas A, Iverson KM, Smith BN, Mitchell KS. Examining the Association between Trauma Exposure and Work-Related Outcomes in Women Veterans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12):4585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sienkiewicz, Megan E., Aneline Amalathas, Katherine M. Iverson, Brian N. Smith, and Karen S. Mitchell 2020. "Examining the Association between Trauma Exposure and Work-Related Outcomes in Women Veterans" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 12: 4585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124585

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop