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Article

Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults

1
Cluster for Resilience and Well-being, Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, 44 Greenhill Road, Wayville 5043, Australia
2
School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia
3
Physical Activity Research Group, Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, 44 Greenhill Road, Wayville 504, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 7 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has enforced dramatic changes to daily living including economic and health impacts. Evidence for the impact of these changes on our physical and mental health and health behaviors is limited. We examined the associations between psychological distress and changes in selected health behaviors since the onset of COVID-19 in Australia. An online survey was distributed in April 2020 and included measures of depression, anxiety, stress, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking. The survey was completed by 1491 adults (mean age 50.5 ± 14.9 years, 67% female). Negative change was reported for physical activity (48.9%), sleep (40.7%), alcohol (26.6%) and smoking (6.9%) since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Significantly higher scores in one or more psychological distress states were found for females, and those not in a relationship, in the lowest income category, aged 18–45 years, or with a chronic illness. Negative changes in physical activity, sleep, smoking and alcohol intake were associated with higher depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Health-promotion strategies directed at adopting or maintaining positive health-related behaviors should be utilized to address increases in psychological distress during the pandemic. Ongoing evaluation of the impact of lifestyle changes associated with the pandemic is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychological distress; COVID; health behaviors; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake psychological distress; COVID; health behaviors; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake
MDPI and ACS Style

Stanton, R.; To, Q.G.; Khalesi, S.; Williams, S.L.; Alley, S.J.; Thwaite, T.L.; Fenning, A.S.; Vandelanotte, C. Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065

AMA Style

Stanton R, To QG, Khalesi S, Williams SL, Alley SJ, Thwaite TL, Fenning AS, Vandelanotte C. Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):4065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stanton, Robert; To, Quyen G.; Khalesi, Saman; Williams, Susan L.; Alley, Stephanie J.; Thwaite, Tanya L.; Fenning, Andrew S.; Vandelanotte, Corneel. 2020. "Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 11: 4065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065

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