Next Article in Journal
Bivariate Spatial Pattern between Smoking Prevalence and Lung Cancer Screening in US Counties
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing Influence Mechanism of Green Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Five Provinces of China through Farmers’ Motivation-Cognition-Behavior
Open AccessArticle

Hydrochemical Evolution Mechanisms of Shallow Groundwater and Its Quality Assessment in the Estuarine Coastal Zone: A Case Study of Qidong, China

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103382
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 12 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Identification of geochemical characters and the influence of river and seawater on coastal areas are of significant impact on water resources management in coastal areas globally. Thus, it requires careful investigation of the hydrochemical evolution mechanisms and assessment of the quality of shallow groundwater. The study specifically focused on the estuarine coastal zone of Qidong, China, a city located on the Yangtze estuary. Thirty shallow groundwater samples and five surface water samples were collected during a field investigation, and 25 water quality indexes were analyzed. Methods including mathematical statistics, Gibbs figure, Piper diagram, and ionic rations were used to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics and evolution mechanisms. The spatial distribution of key parameters was assessed using a GIS-based spatial gridding technique. Results showed that the shallow groundwater in this estuarine coastal zone is weakly alkaline. The major hydrochemical parameters, including total dissolved solids (TDS), Na+ and Cl, Mg2+, and SO42−, displayed similar spatial distributions; the distributions of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were irregular; the distributions of SO42− and HCO3 shared a similar trend, increasing gradually from the southern to northern regions of the study zone; and the values of NO3 and NH4+ were generally low in the study area. The hydrochemistry of the groundwater consists of HCO3-CaMg type and HCO3-Na, with HCO3·Cl-Na type and Cl-Na being the dominant constituents toward the coastal strip. The coastal aquifers are subjected to the ongoing influence of seawater intrusion, ion exchange processes, freshwater infiltration, and mineral (carbonate and silicate) dissolution, which impact groundwater evolution. Most of the groundwater samples are unsuitable for drinking purposes, but more than 90% of samples have irrigation suitability, based on the WHO standards and the classifications of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), soluble-sodium percentage (SSP). View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemistry; shallow groundwater; coastal zone; Yangtze estuary; groundwater quality hydrochemistry; shallow groundwater; coastal zone; Yangtze estuary; groundwater quality
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, Y.; Qiu, J.; Cheng, S.; Xu, C.; Gao, X. Hydrochemical Evolution Mechanisms of Shallow Groundwater and Its Quality Assessment in the Estuarine Coastal Zone: A Case Study of Qidong, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3382.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop