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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1342;

Are Bus Company Regulations Associated with Crash Risk? Findings from a Retrospective Survey in Four Chinese Cities

Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300050, China
School of International and Public Affairs, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China
Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
PDF [290 KB, uploaded 14 April 2019]


Bus crashes are common in urban China, and bus company regulations are hypothesized to be related to bus crash risk. We conducted a retrospective survey to examine the association in four large Chinese cities (Changsha, Shenzhen, Fuzhou, and Wuhan). Four types of bus crashes were considered: (a) passengers injured while riding the bus; (b) bus colliding with or scraping other motor vehicles; (c) bus colliding with non-motorized vehicles or pedestrians; and (d) bus damaging public facilities. Based on regulations governing the drivers’ work, complete round trips per day, and their paid salary, three categories of companies were studied: type A: ≥14 h worked/day, ≥6 round trips/day, and >70% of salary based on performance; type B: 8–13 h/day, 4 or 5 round trips/day, and 36–70% of salary; and type C: <36% of salary and no other specified requirements. Of the 926 respondents, 20.7% reported one or more crashes or related risk events in the past month. Drivers from the three types of companies reported crash incidence rates of 31.9%, 8.8%, and 6.0%, respectively, in the past month. Type A crash rates were significantly higher than type C after controlling for relevant covariates (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.74–13.47). We conclude that more stringent bus company regulations, which mandate drivers to work long hours and obtain salary based on job performance in meeting demanding metrics, are associated with elevated bus-related crash risks. Local governments in China should regulate bus companies to ensure drivers work reasonable hours and are paid based on the quality of their work (e.g., safety). View Full-Text
Keywords: bus crash; bus company regulation; retrospective survey; China bus crash; bus company regulation; retrospective survey; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, X.; Zhang, H.; Xiao, W.; Ning, P.; Schwebel, D.C.; Hu, G. Are Bus Company Regulations Associated with Crash Risk? Findings from a Retrospective Survey in Four Chinese Cities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1342.

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