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Degradation of Paracetamol by an UV/Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Process: Influencing Factors, Factorial Design, and Intermediates Identification
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030505

Removal of Paracetamol Using Effective Advanced Oxidation Processes

1
Center for Process and Environmental Engineering CEPIMA, Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Escola d’Enginyeria de Barcelona Est (EEBE), Av. Eduard Maristany, 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Fraunhofer, Nobelstrasse 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Barcelona Research Center in Multiscale Science and Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Escola d’Enginyeria de Barcelona Est (EEBE), Av. Eduard Maristany, 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Abstract

Fenton, photo-Fenton, and photo-induced oxidation, were investigated and compared for the treatment of 0.26 mmol L−1 of paracetamol (PCT) in a deionised water matrix, during a reaction span of 120.0 min. Low and high Fenton reagent loads were studied. Particularly, the initial concentration of Fe2+ was varied between 0.09 and 0.18 mmol L−1 while the initial concentration of H2O2 was varied between 2.78 and 11.12 mmol L−1. The quantitative performance of these treatments was evaluated by: (i) measuring PCT concentration; (ii) measuring and modelling TOC conversion, as a means characterizing sample mineralization; and (iii) measuring cytotoxicity to assess the safe application of each treatment. In all cases, organic matter mineralization was always partial, but PCT concentration fell below the detection limit within 2.5 and 20.0 min. The adopted semi-empirical model revealed that photo induced oxidation is the only treatment attaining total organic matter mineralization ( ξ MAX = 100% in 200.0 min) at the expense of the lowest kinetic constant (k = 0.007 min−1). Conversely, photo-Fenton treatment using high Fenton reagent loads gave a compromise solution ( ξ MAX = 73% and k = 0.032 min−1). Finally, cytotoxicity assays proved the safe application of photo-induced oxidation and of photo-Fenton treatments using high concentrations of Fenton reagents. View Full-Text
Keywords: photo-induced oxidation; Fenton; photo-Fenton; hydrogen peroxide dosage; kinetic model; cytotoxicity; paracetamol; by-products photo-induced oxidation; Fenton; photo-Fenton; hydrogen peroxide dosage; kinetic model; cytotoxicity; paracetamol; by-products
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Audino, F.; Toro Santamaria, J.M.; del Valle Mendoza, L.J.; Graells, M.; Pérez-Moya, M. Removal of Paracetamol Using Effective Advanced Oxidation Processes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 505.

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