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Open AccessArticle

The Choice of Pedometer Impacts on Daily Step Counts in Primary School Children under Free-Living Conditions

College of Health and Welfare, J. F. Oberlin University, Tokyo 194-0294, Japan
Yuki Hikihara, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba 275-0023, Japan
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4375;
Received: 8 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Background: We examined whether daily step counts under free-living conditions differed among four types of pedometers used by primary school children. Methods: In Study one, we compared the Yamax SW-200 (widely used in research) and the Kenz Lifecorder (accelerometer-based pedometer) in 30 children (6–12 years). In Study two, after confirming good correlation between these devices, we used Kenz Lifecorder as the criterion device and compared it with the Yamasa EX-200 (pants pocket-type pedometer) and the Omron Active style Pro (accelerometer-based pedometer) among 48 (7–12 years) or 108 children (7–12 years). Results: In Study one, comparable mean step counts between pedometers were observed. The correlation was strong (r = 0.91); the average difference between these two pedometers was +4.5%. In Study two, the average differences between Kenz Lifecorder and Yamasa EX-200 and Kenz Lifecorder and Omron Active style Pro were −7.9% and −18.2%, respectively, and those were not significantly equivalent according to the two one-sided-tests method. The correlations between Yamasa or Omron Active style Pro and Lifecorder were moderate and strong, respectively. Conclusions: The choice of pedometer had a substantial impact on step counts. A consensus on the appropriate pedometer for quantifying daily step counts is needed for evidence-based recommendations for health promotion. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; children; acceleration physical activity; children; acceleration
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Tanaka, C.; Hikihara, Y.; Inoue, S.; Tanaka, S. The Choice of Pedometer Impacts on Daily Step Counts in Primary School Children under Free-Living Conditions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4375.

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