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Open AccessArticle

Early- and Late-Luteal-Phase Estrogen and Progesterone Levels of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

1
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 801, Taiwan
2
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
5
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
6
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224352
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Reproductive and Maternal Health)
: Objective/introduction: The dynamics of ovarian hormone fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstruation cycle were previously suggested to contribute to the development of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) symptoms, but adequate empirical evidence has not been obtained from hormone concentration studies. We prospectively evaluated estrogen and progesterone levels in the early luteal (EL) and late luteal (LL) phases in women with PMDD and the association of these levels with PMDD symptom severity. Methods: 63 women with PMDD and 53 controls without such severe symptoms were evaluated for the estrogen and progesterone levels, and PMDD severity in the EL and LL phases. Results: The results demonstrated that the women with PMDD had a lower EL-phase estrogen level than the controls. Covariant analysis demonstrated that the interaction term between EL-phase estrogen and EL-phase progesterone level was associated with PMDD severity. Among women with lower EL estrogen levels, higher EL-phase progesterone was observed among the women with PMDD versus controls. These results suggest that low EL-phase estrogen level could moderate the provoking effect of EL progesterone in women with PMDD. Overall, these data suggest a possible role of estrogen and progesterone in the development of PMDD symptoms.
Keywords: PMDD; women; estrogen; progesterone; luteal; prospective PMDD; women; estrogen; progesterone; luteal; prospective
MDPI and ACS Style

Yen, J.-Y.; Lin, H.-C.; Lin, P.-C.; Liu, T.-L.; Long, C.-Y.; Ko, C.-H. Early- and Late-Luteal-Phase Estrogen and Progesterone Levels of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4352.

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