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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020169

The Association between Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Chronic Disease in Inner Mongolia in Northern China

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
2
Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010110, China
3
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
4
National Center for Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
5
Department of Reproductive and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract

The interactive associations of socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking with chronic disease were investigated with a view to expanding the evidence to inform tobacco policies and interventions in Northern China. The fifth NHSS (National Health Service Survey) 2013 in Inner Mongolia was a population-based survey of national residents, aged 15 years and older, in which multi-stage stratified cluster sampling methods were used to survey 13,554 residents. The SES was measured by scores derived from levels of education level and household annual income. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between SES, smoking, and chronic disease adjusted by confounders. Three thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven residents (32.29%) were identified as current smokers and 3520 residents (26.01%) had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. In the males, former smoking with low SES had the highest risk of one chronic disease, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.505 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] (OR = 2.505, 95% CI: 1.635–3.837) or multiple chronic diseases (OR = 2.631, 95% CI: 1.321–5.243). In the females, current smoking with low SES had the highest risk of one chronic disease (OR = 3.044, 95% CI: 2.158–4.292). The conclusion of this study was that residents with combined ever-smoking and low SES deserved more attention in the prevention and control of chronic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioeconomic status (SES); smoking; chronic disease; interaction socioeconomic status (SES); smoking; chronic disease; interaction
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Wang, X.; Zhang, T.; Wu, J.; Yin, S.; Nan, X.; Du, M.; Liu, A.; Wang, P. The Association between Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Chronic Disease in Inner Mongolia in Northern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 169.

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