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Open AccessArticle

Validation of the Short-Form Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-SF12) and Its Determinants among People Living in Rural Areas in Vietnam

1
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
2
Health Management Training Institute, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue 491-20, Vietnam
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Faculty of Public Health, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hai Phong 042-12, Vietnam
4
Department of Health Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, Behavior and Health Education, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi 119-10, Vietnam
5
Emergency Department, Bai Chay Hospital, Quang Ninh 011-21, Vietnam
6
School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
7
Stem Cell Unit, Van Hanh Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City 725-10, Vietnam
8
Department of Training and Direction of Healthcare Activities, Thu Duc District Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City 713-11, Vietnam
9
Research Center of Geriatric Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
10
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
11
School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
12
Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183346
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
Background: Health literacy (HL) is an important factor in improving health inequalities in poor and marginalized groups. Assessing comprehensive HL is critical. In this study, we validated the use of a comprehensive short-form HL survey tool (HLS-SF12) and examined the determinants of HL among people in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2019 on 440 people residing in mountainous areas in Vietnam. Health literacy was measured using the HLS-SF12. Personal characteristics were also collected. We analyzed data using confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency analysis, and regression analysis. Results: The questionnaire demonstrated a good construct validity with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices and item-scale convergent validity. The tool was reliable and homogeneous with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79, with no floor/ceiling effects. People who were married had lower HL (regression coefficient B = −3.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −5.69, −0.56; p = 0.017) compared with those who never married. Higher education attainment (B = 3.41 to 10.44; p < 0.001), a better ability to pay for medication (B = 4.17 to 9.89; p < 0.001), and a tendency to view health-related TV/radio more often (B = 5.23 to 6.15; p < 0.001) were associated with higher HL. Conclusions: The HLS-SF12 is a valid survey tool for the evaluation of HL in rural populations. A number of personal characteristics were strongly associated with HL. View Full-Text
Keywords: health literacy; HLS-SF12; validation; determinant; mountaineer; rural areas; education; health-related TV; ability to pay for medication; Vietnam health literacy; HLS-SF12; validation; determinant; mountaineer; rural areas; education; health-related TV; ability to pay for medication; Vietnam
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Duong, T.V.; Nguyen, T.T.P.; Pham, K.M.; Nguyen, K.T.; Giap, M.H.; Tran, T.D.X.; Nguyen, C.X.; Yang, S.-H.; Su, C.-T. Validation of the Short-Form Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-SF12) and Its Determinants among People Living in Rural Areas in Vietnam. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3346.

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