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Review

Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

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Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Medicine Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department and Department of Medicine and Surgery, University-Hospital of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
2
Internal Medicine Unit, Pavullo Hospital, Azienda USL, 41026 Modena, Italy
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Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
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Fondazione Villa Serena per la Ricerca, Viale Leonardo Petruzzi, 42-65013 Città Sant’Angelo, Italy
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Geriatrics Clinic, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging and Ce.S.I.-MeT, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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European Center of Excellence on Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis and Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, “G. d’Annunzio” University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Ducane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
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Center for the Study and the Integrated Treatment of Obesity–Department of Medicine—University of Padova, 35122 Padua, Italy
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Clinical Research Center, Dept, of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173104
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 18 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 26 August 2019
New evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a strong multifaceted relationship with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, regardless of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Given the pandemic-level rise of NAFLD—in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome—and its association with poor cardiovascular outcomes, the question of how to manage NAFLD properly, in order to reduce the burden of associated incident cardiovascular events, is both timely and highly relevant. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease, and also to discuss possible clinical strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment, as well as the spectrum of available therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD and its downstream events. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cardiovascular disease; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk factors non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cardiovascular disease; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk factors
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tana, C.; Ballestri, S.; Ricci, F.; Di Vincenzo, A.; Ticinesi, A.; Gallina, S.; Giamberardino, M.A.; Cipollone, F.; Sutton, R.; Vettor, R.; Fedorowski, A.; Meschi, T. Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3104. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173104

AMA Style

Tana C, Ballestri S, Ricci F, Di Vincenzo A, Ticinesi A, Gallina S, Giamberardino MA, Cipollone F, Sutton R, Vettor R, Fedorowski A, Meschi T. Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(17):3104. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tana, Claudio, Stefano Ballestri, Fabrizio Ricci, Angelo Di Vincenzo, Andrea Ticinesi, Sabina Gallina, Maria Adele Giamberardino, Francesco Cipollone, Richard Sutton, Roberto Vettor, Artur Fedorowski, and Tiziana Meschi. 2019. "Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 17: 3104. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173104

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