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Open AccessArticle

Exploring Unconventional Risk-Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases: Has Opioid Therapy Been Overlooked?

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
2
Department of Behavioral and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
3
Department of Biology, Jackson state University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142564
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Approximately 2150 adults die every day in the U.S. from Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and another 115 deaths are attributed to opioid-related causes. Studies have found conflicting results on the relationship between opioid therapy and the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether an association exists between the use of prescription opioid medicines and cardiovascular diseases, using secondary data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) 2015 survey. Of the 1829 patients, 1147 (63%) were male, 1762 (98%) above 45 years of age, and 54% were overweight. The rate of cardiovascular diseases was higher among women [(p < 0.001), 95% CI: 0.40–0.51]. The covariates were age, race/ethnicity, sex, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension; and were adjusted. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were significant predictors of CVD [(p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.57–0.78); (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.34–0.44); (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.49–0.59)]. There was no significant association between prescription opioid medication use and coronary artery disease [first opioid group p = 0.34, Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR): 1.39, 95% CI: 0.71–2.75; second opioid group: p = 0.59, POR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.61–2.37, and third opioid group: p = 0.62, POR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.45–1.6]. The results of this study further accentuate the conflicting results in literature. Further research is recommended, with a focus on those geographical areas where high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases exists. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; opioids medication; hypertension; myocardial infarction cardiovascular diseases; opioids medication; hypertension; myocardial infarction
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Ogungbe, O.; Akil, L.; Ahmad, H.A. Exploring Unconventional Risk-Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases: Has Opioid Therapy Been Overlooked? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2564.

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